Chapter 8 Learning Objectives Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Learning Objectives Deck (39):


Something that is able to dissolve substances.



Dissolved substances in a solution.



The movement of water across a membrane associated with a difference in concentration of dissolved substances.


blood pressure

The amount of force exerted by the blood against the walls of the arteries.


Co factors

inorganic ions or coenzymes that help activate incomplete enzymes be complete in order to do its job.


How is water distributed throughout the body?

2/3 of body water is in intracellular fluids
the other 1/3 is in extracellular fluids


What are the functions of the kidneys?



What are the six functions of water in the body?

1. Acts as a universal solvent
2. Metabolic processes in the body occur in water.
3. Transport system for substances throughout the body.
4. Cushion for the brain, organs, fetus
5. Lubricates and protects joints, eyes with saliva and mucus.
6. Maintenance of body temperature


What are the organizations responsible for regulating public and bottled drinking water?

The Environmental Protection Agency regulates public drinking water.
The Federal Drug Administration regulates the production of bottled water.


What are the symptoms of dehydration?

headache, fatigue, reduced cognative and physical performance, nausea, confusion, disorientation, dark pee.


Water intoxication

When you lose water and sodium through sweating and just replacing the water and sodium lost with straight water. This dilutes the remaining sodium in your body and leads to symptoms similar to dehydration.



(politically correct name for water intoxication) when you drink an excess amount of water without sodium.


What are the seven overall functions of the minerals in the body?

1. Cofactors
2. Regulate the body's processes
3. Fluid regulation
4. Bone health
5. Blood pressure regulation
6. Muscle contraction
7. Nerve transmission


What are the factors that affect mineral bioavailability?

Components found in whole grains that bind to calcium, zinc, and iron and prevent the body from absorbing them.



high blood pressure


What are the risk factors for developing hypertension?

Are African American

Are obese

Are often stressed or anxious

Drink too much alcohol (more than one drink per day for women and more than two drinks per day for men)

Eat too much salt in your diet

Have a family history of high blood pressure

Have diabetes



What are the characteristics of the DASH diet?

The DASH(Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy foods; includes meat, fish, poultry, nuts and beans; and is limited in sugar-sweetened foods and beverages, red meat, and added fats. In addition to its effect on blood pressure, it is designed to be a well-balanced approach to eating for the general public


What are the common dietary sources of sodium and potassium?

#1 from processed food additives
#2 sodium that is naturally found in foods
#3 sodium from the use of salt shaker


What are the DRIs for sodium?

2300 mg/day


How does sodium effect blood pressure?

As sodium intake increases, blood pressure increases.


What are the factor that affect peak bone mass and the rate of bone loss?



Explain how blood calcium is regulated.

99% of calcium within the body is found in the solid mineral deposits; the teeth and bones. While the remaining 1% floats around the intracellular fluid.


What are good dietary sources of calcium?

Any milk product


Explain the functions of calcium, phosphorous, and magnesium that are unrelated to their role in bone.

Calcium aids in nerve transmission, muscle contraction, the release of hormones, and blood pressure regulation.
Phosphorous aids in energy metabolism, structuring cell membranes, regulation of enzyme activity, constituent of DNA/RNA which orchestrate the synthesis of proteins, and prevents changes in the acidity of intracellular fluid.
Magnesium is a part of complex that stabilizes ATP, regulates vitamin D and hormones, may help lower cholesterol.


What are some foods high in magnesium and phosphorous?

Whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, milk


What are some dietary sources of heme iron and nonheme iron?

Heme: Animal based foods-meats, poultry, fish
Nonheme: iron enriched grain products-legumes, apricots, potatoes


Explain the absorption of iron in the GI tract and methods of improving the absorption of.



What are the two functions of iron in the body, and what are the results of a deficiency?

Part of hemoglobin in red blood cells that transport oxygen to tissues and picks up carbon dioxide and waste from cells.


What are the three functions of copper in the body?

Part of proteins needed to be transported iron from intestinal cells.
Part of a number of proteins.
Enzymes involved in production of tissues, lipid metabolism, immune function, nervous and system.


What are the five functions of zinc in the body?

1. DNA aand RNA synthesis, growth and development.
2. Needed for the production of white blood cells.
3. Mobilization of vitamin A from liver.
4. Wound healing.
5. Stabilization of cell membranes.


What is the function of fluoride in the body?

strengthens tooth enamel


What are the two functions of iodine in the body?

1. Needed for synthesis of thyroid hormones
2. Regulates metabolic rate, helps heart, nerves, muscle and intestines function properly.


What are the three functions of selenium in the body?

1. Helps regulate thyroid hormones.
2. Act as antioxidants
3. possible Prevention of colon and prostate cancer



("porous bones", from Greek: οστούν/ostoun meaning "bone" and πόρος/poros meaning "pore") is a disease of bones that leads to an increased risk of fracture.



a decrease in number of red blood cells (RBCs) or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood.


Keshan disease

a congestive cardiomyopathy caused by a combination of dietary deficiency of selenium and the presence of a mutated strain of Coxsackievirus. Often fatal, the disease afflicts children and women of child bearing age, characterized by heart failure and pulmonary edema. Over decades, Supplementation with selenium reduced this affliction.



is a swelling of the thyroid gland,[1] which can lead to a swelling of the neck or larynx (voice box).



a condition of severely stunted physical and mental growth due to untreated congenital deficiency of thyroid hormones (congenital hypothyroidism) usually due to maternal hypothyroidism.


Dental Caries

also known as tooth decay or a cavity, is an infection, bacterial in origin, that causes demineralization and destruction of the hard tissues (enamel, dentin and cementum), usually by production of acid by bacterial fermentation of the food debris accumulated on the tooth surface.