Chapter 1: Introduction: Learning to Change Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1: Introduction: Learning to Change Deck (13)
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1
Q

aversive

A

(n) Any stimulus the removal of which is reinforcing; (adj.) characterizing an event that is likely to be avoided.

2
Q

behavior

A

Anything a person or animal does that can be measured. In practice, the term usually refers to publicly observable overt behavior. However, behavior that is available only to the person performing it (such as thinking) may be included if it can be reliably measured.

3
Q

fixed action pattern

A

See modal action pattern.

4
Q

general behavior trait

A

Any general behavioral tendency that is strongly influenced by genes. Examples include introversion and general anxiety. (C’. fi xed action pattern.)

5
Q

habituation

A

A decrease in the intensity or probability of a reflex response resulting from repeated exposure to a stimulus that elicits that response. (C’. sensitization.)

6
Q

learning

A

A change in behavior due to experience.

7
Q

modal action pattern

A

A series of interrelated acts found in all or nearly all members of a species. Also called fi xed action pattern, species-specifi c behavior or species typical behavior; formerly called instincts. They have a strong genetic component.

8
Q

mutation

A

Any change in a gene. When the modifi ed gene occurs in a reproductive cell, the mutation may be passed on to offspring.

9
Q

natural selection

A

The tendency for characteristics that contribute to the survival of a species to persist and for those that do not to disappear.

10
Q

reflex

A

A relationship between a specific event and a simple, involuntary response to that event. The term usually refers to an unconditional refl ex. (See unconditional refl ex; C’. conditional refl ex.)

11
Q

Releaser, or releasing stimulus

A

Any stimulus that reliably elicits a fixed action pattern.

12
Q

Sensitization

A

An increase in the intensity or probability of a reflex response resulting from earlier exposure to a stimulus that elicits that response. (C’. habituation.)

13
Q

Stimulus

A

Any event that affects, or is capable of affecting, behavior.