Chapter 3: Pavlovian Conditioning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3: Pavlovian Conditioning Deck (31)
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1
Q

Backward conditioning

A

A Pavlovian conditioning procedure in which the US precedes the CS. (C’. forward chaining.)

2
Q

Blocking

A

Failure of a stimulus to become a CS when it is part of a compound stimulus that includes an effective CS. The effective CS is said to block the formation of a new CS. (C’. overshadowing.)

3
Q

Classical conditioning

A

The procedure of pairing a neutral stimulus (typically referred to as the CS) with a US. Also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning.

4
Q

Compound stimulus

A

Two or more stimuli presented simultaneously, often as a CS.

5
Q

Conditional reflex

A

A reflex acquired through Pavlovian conditioning and consisting of a conditional stimulus and a conditional response. (C’. unconditional reflex.)

6
Q

Conditional response (CR)

A

The response part of a conditional reflex; the response elicited by a conditional stimulus. Often called conditioned response.

7
Q

Conditional stimulus (CS)

A

The stimulus part of a conditional reflex; the stimulus that elicits a conditional response. Often called conditioned stimulus.

8
Q

Contiguity

A

Nearness of events in time (temporal contiguity) or space (spatial contiguity).

9
Q

Contingency

A

A dependency between events. An event may be stimulus contingent (dependent on the appearance of a stimulus) or response contingent (dependent on the appearance of a behavior).

10
Q

CS+

A

In Pavlovian discrimination training, the stimulus that is regularly paired with a US. (C’. CS.)

11
Q

CS-

A

In Pavlovian discrimination training, the stimulus that regularly appears in the absence of the US. (C’. CS+.)

12
Q

Delayed conditioning

A

A Pavlovian conditioning procedure in which the CS starts before, and then overlaps with, the US.

A Pavlovian conditioning procedure in which the CS starts before, and then overlaps with, the US.

13
Q

Extinction

A

1) In Pavlovian conditioning, the procedure of repeatedly presenting a CS without the US. (2) In operant training, the procedure of withholding the reinforcers that maintain a behavior. (C’. forgetting.)

14
Q

Higher-order conditioning

A

A variation of Pavlovian conditioning in which a stimulus is paired, not with a US, but with a well-established CS.

15
Q

Interstimulus interval (ISI)

A

The interval between the CS and US. The ISI is a measure of contiguity in Pavlovian conditioning.

16
Q

Latent inhibition

A

In Pavlovian conditioning, the failure of a CR to appear as a result of prior presentation of the CS in the absence of the US.

17
Q

Overshadowing

A

Failure of a stimulus that is part of a compound stimulus to become a CS. The stimulus is said to be overshadowed by the stimulus that does become a CS. (C’. blocking.)

18
Q

Pavlovian conditioning

A

See classical conditioning.

19
Q

Pseudoconditioning

A

The tendency of a neutral stimulus to elicit a CR when presented after a US has elicited a reflex response. Pseudocondtioning is apparently due to sensitization.

20
Q

Rescoria-Wagner model

A

A theory of Pavlovian conditioning based on the assumption that the amount of learning that can occur on a particular trial is limited by the nature of the CS and US and the amount of learning that has already occurred. It is expressed by the equation ΔVn = c (λ Vn 1).

21
Q

Respondent conditioning

A

See Pavlovian conditioning.

22
Q

Sensory preconditioning

A

A procedure in which two neutral stimuli are paired, after which one is repeatedly paired with a US. If the other stimulus is then presented alone, it may elicit a CR even though it was never paired with the US.

23
Q

Simultaneous conditioning

A

A Pavlovian conditioning procedure in which the CS and US occur together in time.

24
Q

Spontaneous recovery

A

The sudden reappearance of a behavior following its extinction.

25
Q

Stimulus-substitution theory

A

In Pavlovian conditioning, the theory that the CS substitutes for the US. Assumes that the CR is essentially the same as the UR.

26
Q

Test trial

A

In Pavlovian conditioning, the procedure of presenting the CS on some occasions without the US to determine whether learning has occurred.

27
Q

Trace conditioning

A

A Pavlovian conditioning procedure in which the CS begins and ends before the US is presented.

28
Q

Unconditional reflex

A

A synonym for reflex. An unconditional reflex consists of an unconditional stimulus and an unconditional response. (See refl ex; C’. conditional reflex.)

29
Q

Unconditional response (UR)

A

The response elicited by an unconditional stimulus. Often called an unconditioned response. (C’. conditional response.)

30
Q

Unconditional stimulus (US)

A

The stimulus that elicits an unconditional response. Often called an unconditioned stimulus. (C’. conditional stimulus.)

31
Q

Intertrial interval

A

The interval separating the trials of a discrete trial procedure.