Chapter 2: The Study of Learning and Behavior Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2: The Study of Learning and Behavior Deck (17)
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1
Q

ABA reversal design

A

A type of within-subject experiment in which behavior is observed before (A) and after (B) an experimental manipulation. The original (A) condition is restored, sometimes followed again by the experimental (B) condition.

2
Q

Anecdotal evidence

A

First- or secondhand reports of personal experience.

3
Q

Baseline period

A

In a within-subject experiment, a period of observation (often designated A) during which no attempt is made to modify the behavior under study.

4
Q

Between-subjects experiment

A

An experimental design in which the independent variable is made to vary across two or more groups of subjects. Also called between-treatment or group experiment.

5
Q

Case study

A

Detailed study and description of a single case. Usually used in clinical settings.

6
Q

Control group

A

In a between-subjects experiment, those subjects not exposed to the independent variable.

7
Q

Cumulative record

A

A graphic record of behavior, each point of which reflects the total number of times a behavior has been performed as of that time. (Cā€™. cumulative recorder.)

8
Q

Cumulative recorder

A

An apparatus (or software) that records every occurrence of a behavior, thereby producing a cumulative record. (Cā€™. cumulative record.)

9
Q

Dependent variable

A

The variable by which the outcome of an experiment is measured. It is expected to vary with (to depend on) the independent variable.

10
Q

Descriptive study

A

A study in which the researcher attempts to describe a group by obtaining data from its members.

11
Q

Experiment

A

A research design in which the researcher measures the effects of one or more independent variables on one or more dependent variables.

12
Q

Experimental group

A

In a between-subjects experiment, those subjects exposed to the independent variable.

13
Q

Group experiment

A

See between-subjects experiment.

14
Q

Independent variable

A

In an experiment, the variable that the researcher controls. The independent variable is usually expected to affect the dependent variable.

15
Q

Matched sampling

A

A procedure for reducing extraneous differences among subjects in between-subjects experiments by matching those in the experimental and control groups on specified characteristics, such as age, sex, and weight.

16
Q

Operational definition

A

A definition that specifies the operation (procedure) by which a term will be measured.

17
Q

Within-subject experiment

A

A research design in which the independent variable is made to vary at different times for the same subject. (Thus, each subject serves as both an experimental and control subject.) Also called single-subject or single case experiment.