Chapter 6: Schedules of Reinforcement Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6: Schedules of Reinforcement Deck (33)
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1
Q

Chain schedule

A

A complex reinforcement schedule that consists of a series of simple schedules, each of which is associated with a particular stimulus, with reinforcement delivered only on completion of the last schedule in the series. (C’. tandem schedule.)

2
Q

Concurrent schedule

A

A complex reinforcement schedule in which two or more simple schedules are available at the same time.

3
Q

Continuous reinforcement

A

A reinforcement schedule in which a behavior is reinforced each time it occurs. Abbreviated CRF. (C’. intermittent schedule.)

4
Q

Cooperative schedule

A

A complex reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is contingent on the behavior of two or more individuals.

5
Q

Differential reinforcement

A

Any operant training procedure in which certain kinds of behavior are systematically reinforced and others are not.

6
Q

Differential reinforcement of high rate (DRH)

A

A form of differential reinforcement in which a behavior is reinforced only if it occurs at least a specified number of times in a given period. (C’. differential reinforcement of low rate.)

7
Q

Differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL)

A

A form of differential reinforcement in which a behavior is reinforced only if it occurs no more than a specifi ed number of times in a given period. (C’. differential reinforcement of high rate.)

8
Q

Discrimination hypothesis

A

The proposal that the PRE occurs because it is harder to discriminate between intermittent reinforcement and extinction than between continuous reinforcement and extinction.

9
Q

Fixed duration (FD) schedule

A

A reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is contingent on the continuous performance of a behavior for a fixed period of time. (C’. variable duration schedule.)

10
Q

Fixed interval (FI) schedule

A

A reinforcement schedule in which a behavior is reinforced the first time it occurs following a specified interval since the last reinforcement. (C’. variable interval schedule.)

11
Q

Fixed ratio (FR) schedule

A

A reinforcement schedule in which every nth performance of a behavior is reinforced. (C’. variable ratio schedule.)

12
Q

Fixed time (FT) schedule

A

A reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is delivered independently of behavior at fixed intervals. (C’. variable time schedule.)

13
Q

Frustration hypothesis

A

The proposal that the PRE occurs because nonreinforcement is frustrating and during intermittent reinforcement frustration becomes an S+ for responding.

14
Q

Intermittent schedule

A

Any of several reinforcement schedules in which a behavior is sometimes reinforced. Also called partial reinforcement. (C’. continuous reinforcement.)

15
Q

Matching law

A

The principle that, given the opportunity to respond on two or more reinforcement schedules, the rate of responding on each schedule will match the reinforcement available on each schedule.

16
Q

Mixed schedule

A

A complex reinforcement schedule in which two or more simple schedules, neither associated with a particular stimulus, alternate. (C’. multiple schedule.)

17
Q

Multiple schedule

A

A complex reinforcement schedule in which two or more simple schedules alternate, with each schedule associated with a particular stimulus. (C’. mixed schedule.)

18
Q

Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR)

A

The procedure of providing reinforcers independently of behavior.

19
Q

Partial reinforcement effect (PRE)

A

The tendency of a behavior to be more resistant to extinction following partial reinforcement than following continuous reinforcement. (Also often referred to as the partial reinforcement extinction effect, or PREE.)

20
Q

Postreinforcement pause

A

A pause in responding following reinforcement; associated primarily with FI and FR schedules.

21
Q

Preratio pause

A

A pause that occurs following reinforcement and before a response run. Also called postreinforcement pause.

22
Q

Ratio strain

A

Disruption of the pattern of responding due to stretching the ratio of reinforcement too abruptly or too far.

23
Q

Response unit hypothesis

A

The proposal that the PRE is due to differences in the definition of a behavior during intermittent and continuous reinforcement.

24
Q

Run rate

A

The rate at which a behavior occurs once it has resumed following reinforcement.

25
Q

Schedule effects

A

The distinctive rate and pattern of responding associated with a particular reinforcement schedule.

26
Q

Schedule of reinforcement

A

A rule describing the delivery of reinforcers for a behavior.

27
Q

Sequential hypothesis

A

The proposal that the PRE occurs because the sequence of reinforced and nonreinforced behaviors during intermittent reinforcement becomes an S+ for responding during extinction.

28
Q

Stretching the ratio

A

The procedure of gradually increasing the number of responses required for reinforcement.

29
Q

Tandem schedule

A

A complex reinforcement schedule that consists of a series of simple schedules, with reinforcement delivered only on completion of the last schedule in the series. The simple schedules are not associated with different stimuli. (C’. chain schedule.)

30
Q

Variable duration (VD) schedule

A

A reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is contingent on the continuous performance of a behavior for a period of time, with the length of the time varying around an average. (C’. fixed duration schedule.)

31
Q

Variable interval (VI) schedule

A

A reinforcement schedule in which a behavior is reinforced the first time it occurs following an interval since the last reinforcement, with the interval varying around a specified average. (C’. fixed interval schedule.)

32
Q

Variable ratio (VR) schedule

A

A reinforcement schedule in which, on average, every nth performance of a behavior is reinforced. (C’. fixed ratio schedule.)

33
Q

Variable time (VT) schedule

A

A reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is delivered at varying intervals regardless of what the organism does. (C’. fixed time schedule.)