Chapter 10: Generalization, Discrimination, and Stimulus Control Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10: Generalization, Discrimination, and Stimulus Control Deck (20)
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1
Q

Concept

A

Any class (i.e., group, category) the members of which share one or more defi ning features.

2
Q

Differential outcomes effect (DOE)

A

The fi nding that discrimination training proceeds more rapidly when different behaviors produce different reinforcers.

3
Q

Discrimination

A

The tendency for a behavior to occur in the presence of certain stimuli but not in their absence. (C’. generalization.)

4
Q

Discrimination training

A

Any procedure for establishing a discrimination. Pavlovian discrimination training consists of presenting one stimulus (the CS+) with the US and presenting another stimulus (the CS) without the US. Operant discrimination training normally consists of reinforcing a behavior when it occurs in the presence of one stimulus (the S+ or SD), but not when it occurs in the presence of another stimulus (the S- or SΔ). See errrorless discimination training; matching to sample; simultaneous discrimination training; successive discriminationtraining.

5
Q

Discriminative stimulus

A

In operant discrimination training, any stimulus that signals either that a behavior will be reinforced (an S+ or SD) or will not be reinforced (an S- or SΔ).

6
Q

Errorless discrimination training

A

A form of discrimination training in which the S is introduced in very weak form and gradually strengthened. The usual result is that discrimination is achieved with few or no errors. Also called the Terrace procedure.

7
Q

Excitatory gradient

A

In Spence’’s theory of generalization and discrimination, a generalization gradient showing an increased tendency to respond to the S+ or CS+ and stimuli resembling them. (C’. inhibitory gradient.)

8
Q

Experimental neurosis

A

Any bizarre or neurotic behavior induced through an experimental procedure such as discrimination training.

9
Q

Generalization

A

The tendency for a learned behavior to occur in the presence of stimuli that were not present during training. (C’. discrimination.)

10
Q

Generalization gradient

A

Any graphic representation of generalization data.

11
Q

Inhibitory gradient

A

In Spence’’s theory of generalization and discrimination, a gradient showing a decreased tendency to respond to the S or CS and stimuli resembling them. (C’. excitatory gradient.)

12
Q

Matching to sample (MTS)

A

A discrimination training procedure in which the task is to select from two or more comparison stimuli the one that matches a sample.

13
Q

Mismatching

A

A variation of matching to sample in which reinforcement is available for selecting the comparison stimulus that is different from the sample. Also called oddity matching. Oddity matching

14
Q

Peak shift

A

The tendency following discrimination training for the peak of responding in a generalization gradient to shift away from the CS or S.

15
Q

S–

A

A stimulus in the presence of which a behavior will not be reinforced. Also called SΔ, pronounced ess-delta.

16
Q

S+

A

A stimulus in the presence of which a behavior will be reinforced. Also called SD, pronounced ess-dee. (C’.S.)

17
Q

Semantic generalization

A

Generalization based on an abstract (as opposed to a physical) property of a stimulus.

18
Q

Simultaneous discrimination training

A

A discrimination training procedure in which the S+ and S– are presented at the same time.

19
Q

Stimulus control

A

The tendency for a behavior to occur in the presence of an S+ but not in the presence of an S. (C’. discrimination.)

20
Q

Successive discrimination training

A

A discrimination training procedure in which the S+ and S– are presented one after the other in random sequence.