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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (36):
1

Absolute depreivation

The state of being unable to purchase the things related to basic survival

2

alterative movements

Example-

A type of social movement that focuses on changing individuals thinking and behavior in a specific, limited way;

for example students against drunk driving

3

antithesis

The contradictions and antagonisms within the structure of society that challenge that structure

4

basic needs

What a country's population requires for survival, including health, education, food, water, sanitation

5

capitalists

Those who have capital invested in business and therefore own the means of production

6

cottage industries

A business whose labor force consists of family members who work at home using their own equipment

7

cyclical theory

The view that society is like a natural organism and that each society passes naturally and inevitably through the same life cycle phases as individual biological organisms, so that ultimately social change may be viewed as part of a natural cycle

8

debt dependency

A strategy of development based on reliance on aid and loans from other countries, international aid agencies, and banks

9

debt for nature swaps

Arrangement in which debt ridden governments agree to purchase or set aside land to conserve as state owned parks and to protect the lands natural resources in exchange for debt cancellation

10

dependent development

A dual strategy combining import substitution and export processing adopted by peripheral nations in order to combat the drain on their resources and the unequal benefits of trade dependency

11

dialectic

The ongoing process of social change marked by conflict

12

equilibrium theory

The view that society is like a biological organism such as the human body; according to this notion all systems in the organism are interdependent, and any disturbance or alteration in one of the systems requires adjustments in the other systems in order for the organism to maintain its equilibrium

13

evolutionary theory

The view that society is like a biological organism that evolves to a higher life form with each change, so that social change is viewed as evolutionary

14

export processing

the strategy adopted by peripheral nations of manufacturing goods for sale abroad in order to combat the drain on their resources and the unequal benefits of trade dependency

15

import substitution

The strategy adopted by peripheral nations of substitution locally produced goods for imported goods in order to combat the drain on their resources and the unequal benefits of trade dependency

16

inventions

new practices and objects developed out of existing knowledge

17

latent

a

18

manifest

a

19

Marxist theory

A theoretical perspective that explains social conflicts as rooted in unequal power relations between those who own the means of production and those who do not, and the ongoing resolutions of those conflicts as the engine of social change

20

Modernization theory

The view that poor countries can move from tradition to industrial economies by adopting the values systems of industrialized Western nations

21

political process theory

A theoretical perspective of social movements that argues that mobilizing resources may be necessary for social movements to develop, but it is insufficient by itself to spark an effective social movement unless an opportunity exist or is created to apply those resources in a way that disrupts business as usual

22

proletariat

The working class; those who do not won the means of production and must therefore sell their labor power in order to live

23

redemptive movements

Example-

A type of social movement directed at totally changing individuals rather than society as a whole;

often a religious movement
Fundamentalist movements, they say this religion should be what you live by

24

reformative movements

Example-

a type of social movement that aims to make limited but specific changes in society rather than just in individuals;

for example, the civil rights movement

25

relative deprivation

The state in which people's understanding of deprivation is relative to the conditions around them, to conditions they expect, or to conditions that previously existed

26

resource mobilization theory

The view that social movements and revolutions will not occur unless human and supportive resources are available and deployed for use regardless of how strong the feeling of the people may be

For example, blacks only mobilized once they had the resources to do so eg connection of black churches, massive organized protests esp w students, Rosa Parks incident was planned and she was actually jailed twice before her famous refusal. Only when resources are available w the unrest, will people rise to fight the inequality

27

social darwinism

An extension of the evolutionary perspective that holds that as societies evolve and change, only the fittest will survive and those that are less fit will die out

28

social movements

Large scale, persistent efforts in which individuals working together may alter how institutions and whole societies operate

29

social reforms

An adjustment in the content of cultural patterns of behavior or normative systems that does not fundamentally alter the social structure

30

social revolutions

A fundamental and radical upheaval of existing social structures

31

surrogate mother

A women, usually hired by a married couple, who carries a fertilized egg and gives birth to a child but then turns over the baby to the other woman who will be the child's legal mother

32

synthesis

The result of the conflict between the thesis and the antithesis; a whole new social structure containing elements of both the thesis and the antithesis

33

theesis

The current or temporary state of existence of a society

34

trade dependency

A relationship between nations characterized by limited numbers of core trade partners for peripheral countries

35

transformative movements

Example-

A type of social movement that aims to make sweeping, rather than limited, changes in society;

for example, revolution
Industrial revolution

36

underdeveloped nations

A peripheral nation that has experience historically disadvantageous relationships with more powerful industrialized or core nations and thus has been limited in its development opportunities