Chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

Sociology > Chapter 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (23):
1

Social structure

The way in which recurring patterns of relationships within a social system are organized

2

micro-level social structure

Social structures through which individuals relate to one another, such as an individual's status or role in society

3

mid-level social structure

medium-sized social structures such as groups and organizations

4

status

The position a person occupies in a group or organization; for example in a family a person may have the status of son and brother

5

achieved status

Social status acquired through a person's application of resources, talent, effort, and opportunity

6

ascribed status

Social status over which a person has no control, such as race, sex, and class

7

master status

The one status (among several that each individual has) that overrides all others, thus dictating how a person is treated

8

social role

The behavior expected of individuals in the various positions or statuses they hold

9

social aggregate

A collection of individuals with no real interpersonal ties or patterned relationships, such as people who attend a concert or sporting event

10

group

A collection of individuals who have a regular interaction

11

norms

Rules or standards of proper behavior that are formed by interacting individuals

12

primary group

A collection of individuals who interact frequently and share important connections that bring the members together; for example, family, friends, and coworkers

13

secondary group

A collection of individuals who come together for a specific purpose such as accomplishing a task or achieving a goal; primary groups may form as a result of people's participation in secondary groups

14

bereaucracy

An organization characterized by a clear-cut division of labor, hierarchy of authority, adherence to formal rules, impartiality, and rewards based on merit

15

simple control

Relatively small operations in which the "boss" ran the enterprise. Wheather the owner or hired supervisors oversaw the work, power over workers was exercises personally and directly

16

bureaucratic control

Operates by surrounding people with rules. Employers require that their workers conform to standardized job description, and they evaluate employee job performance on checklists and rating forms.

17

iron law of oligarchy

The inevitable tendency for organizations to be ruled by a few people, even those organizations that purport to be democratic

18

democracy

A government, organization, or group ruled and controlled by the people, usually the majority

19

direct democracy

A government, organization, or group in which all members participate in the decision making

20

representative democracy

A government, organization, or group in which people choose or elect others to make decisions for them

21

informal organization

A social structure that emerges spontaneously as people interact in bureaucratic or formal organizational settings

22

social networks

The complex patterns of social relationships and ties to others in which individuals are caught up

23

social capital

A crucial social resource that all people possess to a greater or lesser degree