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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (22):
1

Hypothesis

carefully formulated statement that may be either verified or discarded on the bassis of the examination of relevant data

2

Variables

are attitudes, behaviors, or conditions that can vary

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Independent variable

One that affects another variable. A change in the independent variable causes the other variable to change

4

dependent variable

A variable in which change is caused by an independent variable

5

Research methods

The research tools used by sociologists, such as surveys, that help to generate new knowledge

6

Experimental group

In research, a group of subjects that receives special treatment designed by the researcher so that the effects of that treatment may be studied (compare with control group)

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control group

In research, a group of subjects that does not receive special treatment designed for an experimental group. The control group serves as a baseline of comparison for the experimental group

8

bias

Unwanted influences that can produce research results that are invalid or without foundation

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sample

A set of subjects that is representative of the total population of subjects

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random

A system of sample selection in which every individual in the total population has an equal chance of being selected

11

open-ended research questions

In research, exploratory questions that leave the sociologist flexibility in deciding what should be considered relevant data.

12

experimental research

Research conducted to determine how a particular organism or object is affected by different types of treatment selected by the researcher (compare with weld research and historical research)

13

field research

Research conducted at the place where the subjects are located so that the researcher may gain information through first-hand observation.

14

passive observation

A type of field research in which the researcher observes the group and records the events for later analysis and interpretation

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participant observation

A type of field research in which the researcher plays an active role in the group to the point where he or she becomes an active participant

16

survey

A type of research in which the participants fill out a questionnaire or answers questions in person or over the phone

17

tracking

A policy in many schools wherein students are grouped for instruction on the basis of the presumption that their past classroom performance

18

gatekeepers

Schools that open different doors of opportunity for different student populations through such policies as tracking, thus depriving students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds of knowledge and schools credentials that could facilitate their future upward mobility

19

historical research

A type of research that is concerned with establishing facts about the past

20

primary sources

Sources of information used in historical research that have not been interpreted, evaluated, or analyzed by others, for example, original records, diaries, official documents, eyewitness accounts, and oral histories

21

secondary sources

Sources of information used in historical research that have been interpreted, evaluated, or analyzed by others, for example, publications of scholars

22

secondary data analysis

The analysis of data that have already been gathered by others, often for totally different purposes.