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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (31):
1

Culture

The social construction of reality of society's dominant groups, often imposed as a shared way of life among members of a society; it is sometimes shared and frequently challenged by subordinate groups

2

ideology

A systematic body of ideas( for example, doctrines or myths) held by members of a class, institution, or group

3

cultural hegemony

A situation in which the ideas and values of the dominant members of society are diffused throughout society's institutions and imposed on less powerful members

4

norms

Rules or standards of proper behavior that are formed by interacting individuals

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normative indoctrination

The teaching of norms to individuals

6

culture shock

A feeling of confusion, uncertainty, surprise, or anxiety experienced when people are exposed to a different culture or behavior that does not conform to the prevailing norms

7

enthnocentrism

The view that one's culture is the standard against which other cultures should be evaluated

8

sanctions

Social control in the form of punishment meted out to those who exhibit deviant behaviors or rewards given to those who conform to the norms of society

9

folkways

The least formal or important norms, usually involving conventional routines such as how many meals a day we eat

10

mores

norms specifying behaviors that must or must not occur, and to which strong feelings may be attached, such as those relation to the selection of a marriage partner

11

laws

The most formal and important norms, which are considered so vital that they are written as legal formalizations

12

values

Assumptions and judgement made about the goods, goals, or states of existence that are deemed important, desirable, and worth striving for

13

patriarchy

A social system in which male dominance is considered a natural, inalienable right

14

nonmaterial culture

The body of abstractions that defines the way society's members live; abstractions include knowledge, beliefs, values, customs, rituals, and symbols

15

material culture

Physical artifacts that define a society; for example, a flag, style of dress, or housing

16

language

Patterns of written symbols, audible sounds, and gestures that convey meanings

17

symbolic annihilation

"The absence of experience of a group of people in the media"

When individuals see few people of color, women, gays, lesbians, people with disabilities, or the poor, or hear few of their voices talking about their experiences as valid, it suggests that these people do not exist or are unimportant

18

sapir-whorf hypothesis

Notion that people's understanding of the world around them can be limited by their language: They only know the world by the very words they learn and use

19

thomas theorem (definition of the situation)

The view that if a situation is defined as real, the consequences of actions based on that definition are quite real, regardless of whether the definition is accurate; for example if women are defined as inferior to men, they will be treated as inferior regardless of the reality; also called definition of the situation

20

corporate culture

The relationships and structures created in societies by corporate ideologies that promote and enhance the production of private profit; corporations in the core frequently export these ideologies to peripheral countries

21

competitive individualism

The beliefs that individuals are completly responsible for their own economic condition so that economic success (wealth) or failure (poverty) is the result of individual effort

22

culture of poverty

The belief that poor people are poverty-stricken because of a shared lack of motivation to work hard, earn a living, or gain an education

23

"mcdonaldization" of society

As described by Ritzer, the exportation of U.S corporate culture around the world and the consequent homogenizatoin of global culture

24

cultural leveling

Situation in which the diverse and distinctive differences between cultures become blurred as they increasingly come to resemble each other because of the common, domination presence of corporate culture

25

cultural relatiity

A perspective that considers other cultures and their points of view as worthy of respect and understanding

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multiculturalism

A perspective that acknowledges the heterogeneity of societies, examines the contributions and the intersection of many different groups at critical moments in history, and explores the factors that affected the experiences of each group

27

subculture

A group whose members participate in the larger society and its institutions but who share values, norms, a heritage, and rituals that differ from those of the dominant culture

28

rituals

Regularly practiced formal ceremonies, usualy marking important personal or social events

29

cultural diffusion

The sharing and incorporation of a diversity of cultures form one society to another, or of subcultures within the dominant culture

30

cultural lag

The time it takes from the point at which a new subculture, technology, or idea is introduced to the point at which it is accepted or incorporated in to the dominant culture

31

counterculture

A subculture whose members embrace values, norms, rituals, and lifestyles that directly challenge those of the dominant culture