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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (27):

Social structure

the organization of recurring patterns of relationships within a social system


Macro-level social structures

large-scale mechanisms which organize and distribute individuals in an entire society, as opposed to small-scale or interpersonal structures
ex. institutions, societies, world system


Death rate

The number of deaths each year per 1,000 in the population


Birth rate

The number of births each year per 1,000 live births



An international social system of cultural, normative, economic, political, and military relations organized around the exchange of goods and services; the most complete macro-level social structure which encompasses all other levels of social structure


global division of labor

Situation in which the work required to produce the world's goods and services is broken into separate tasks, each performed largely by different groups of nations or groups within nations.


core nations

Industrialized and post-industrialized countries where production is based on technology which relies more on machinery and complex technology than on human labor, most labor is employed in the service sector than in basic manufacturing, and human labor is relatively skilled and high-paid

Many people in these countries have very poor people too

ex. USA


peripheral nations

Countries where production is based on technology that relies more on cheap, relatively unskilled human labor than on expensive and complex technology and machinery.

There are still some wealthy people in these nations but mostly poor nation

ex. veitnam


semiperipheral nations

Countries in which production is based on a mixture of intermediate levels of machinery and technology, and semi-skilled, moderately-paid human labor.

ex. Countries like china, india, russia, oil countires in middle east


global north nations

Industrialized and post-industrialized nations that are and have historically been relatively powerful economically, politically, and militarily, and thus able to assert their interests over and above those of less advantaged and powerful nations


global south nations

Semi-industrialized or largely agrarian nations that are relatively less powerful economically, politically, and militarily that the global north nations. They are often impoverished after centuries of exploitation and oppression, and many of these nations have histories of colonialism and imperialism at the hands of global north nations


Infant mortality rates

The number of infants who die within the first year of life per 1,000 live births



An organization of people who share a common territory, govern themselves, and cooperate to secure the survival of the group



Political entities with clearly defined geographic boundaries usually recognized by neighboring nations and characterized by the viewpoint and interests of their dominant groups or societies


Functionalist perspective

Views societies as adaptive social structures that help human beings adjust to their physical, political, economic, and social enviornment


greenhouse effect

An increase in the earth's temperature that results when carbon dioxide is released and trapped in the atmosphere; occurs, for example, when fossil fuels are burned


functional imperatives

According to functionalists, the social needs that must be met in order for a society to survive



The social structures societies possess to fulfill fundamental social needs; five institutions are found in all societies- family, religion, economy, education, and the state


manifest functions

The basic social need an institution is intended to address


latent functions

An unintended and sometimes unrecognized result that is produced as institutions carry out their manifest functions



An organized ongoing network of kin and nonkin who interact daily, sharing economic and household responsibilities and obligations, providing for domestic needs of all members, and ensuring their survival



A body of beliefs and practices (embraced by a social group) concerns with the super-natural and the sacred that encourages followers to conduct themselves in accordance with moral prescriptions associated with the beliefs



The institution made up of structures, relationships, and activities whose manifest function is to produce and distribute goods and services throughout society



The institution whose manifest function is to transmit the knowledge and skills that all young members of society need to become productive members of the economy as adults



The institution made up of political positions and the structure of political relations whose manifest function is to protect society's members from internal and external threats



The politicians who occupy the structure of the state


social movements

Large-scale, persistent efforts in which individuals working together may later how institutions and whole societies operate