What occurs in transposition of the great arteries/vessels
The right ventricle connects to the aorta and the left ventricle connects to the pulmonary artery and they operate as 2 completely separate systems
A person can survive with Transposition of the great arteries
False, This is incompatible with postnatal life and requires shunting (natural)
Are males or females more likely to have aortic coarctation
Males (2x more likely)
What is it called when there is a congenital narrowing or constriction of the aorta
Females with ______ frequently have aortic coartation
The Infantile form of Aortic Coarctation is characterized by hypoplasia of the aortic arch proximal to a PDA
True it is “pre-ductal”
Which form of Aortic Coarctation is usually asymptomatic and has an infolding of the aorta near the ligamentum arteriosum
Adult form “Post Ductal”
More than half of Aortic Coarctation cases are accompanied by a bicuspid aortic valve
In which condition may a person have upper extremity hypertension and lower extremity hypotension
in which form of aortic coarctation may the right ventricle hypertrophy? left ventricle?
Infantile “with PDA” hypertrophies the right
Adult hypertrophies the left
what condition causes 90% of ischemic heart disease cases
Coronary Artery disease (considered synonymous)
In Ischemic Heart Disease how long will it take to cause dysfunction? Necrosis?
1-2 minutes = dysfunction
20-40 minutes = necrosis
When what percentage of an artery is occluded will a person get angina pectoris at rest
In Angina Pectoris “chest pain” there is ischemia and cell death caused by lack of blood flow to the heart
False, Angina Pectoris is Ischemia with No cellular death
* If cell death is occurring you are having an MI
What are the three types of Angina Pectoris?
In Stable/Typical Angina Pectoris the chest pain is intermittent (usually associated with exertion) and feels like a crushing of squeezing of the chest
Where may pain from angina pectoris radiate to?
Left Jaw, left arm, back and shoulders
Which type of Angina Pectoris is characterized by vasospasm at rest
Unstable Angina is more severe, occurs more frequently, and for longer than other types of angina pectoris. It is provoked by an increase in physical activity
False, A decrease in Physical activity
which type of angina pectoris may you expect someone to have if they have 90% occlusion of their coronary arteries
What are some unique characteristics of Angina Pectoris in Females
They may have NO angina (chest pain)
- Dyspnea, unexplained fatigue, upset stomach, back pain, nausea
Acute Coronary Artery Thrombosis causes 75% of Myocardial Infarctions
Which coronary artery is involved in 40-50% of MI’s
Left Anterior descending coronary artery
a Subendocardial Infarction is limited to the outer 1/3 of the myocardium. The subendocardial region is the most vulnerable to hypoxia
False, limited to the Inner 1/3
what is it called when an infarct involves the entire ventricle wall thickness
What is Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease?
progressive heart failure secondary to ischemic myocardial damage (Survival of MI).
- compensatory mechanisms (hypertrophy and dilation) of remaining viable myocardium begin to fail
What condition is caused by a blow to the sternal region that disrupts the hearts rhythm
- Males 15ys
- 65% lethal
What is the most common causes sudden cardiac death
A sustained arrythmia (MC involving left ventricle) Ventricular Fibrillation (V-Fib) = 80-90% Asystole = 10% (rare)
What criteria are required to diagnose systemic (left sided) hypertensive heart disease
1) History of Hypertension
2) Left Ventricular hypertrophy in absence of pathology
Systemic Hypertensive Heart Disease is Most Often Asymptomatic
What is another name for Pulmonary Hypertensive heart disease?
What causes Pulmonary Hypertensive Hear Disease?
A lung pathology (in parenchyma or vasculature) causes pulmonary hypertension resulting in right sided heart failure
** begins with lung pathology
Cor Pulmonale can be caused by left ventricular failure which causes a back up in pulmonary circulation
False, Cor Pulmonale is right sided failure only
Cor Pulmonale can be acute or chronic
Acute - caused by pulmonary embolism
Chronic - caused by COPD or Pulmonary Fibrosis