Primary salivary gland diseases are common
Where are you most likely to find a primary salivary gland disease
99% of saliva is composed of what?
What does Xerostomia mean?
Dry mouth as a result of reduced saliva production
What is Sjogren Syndome?
an autoimmune condition which destroys the exocrine glands (salivary and lacrimal glands) which causes dry mouth and dry eyes
What is it called when you have inflammation and enlargement of salivary glands? Could be due to infection, trauma or autoimmune
What is the most common viral cause of Sialadenitis (Inflammation and Enlargement of salivary glands)
Mumps - attacks parotid gland
Why is mumps so concerning when adults are infected with it?
Can cause Pancreatitis or Orchitis (testicle swelling that can cause sterility)
What is a mucocele?
a blockage or ruptured salivary gland duct that causes production of a small mucous cyst/ranula usually on the inside of the lower lip
Who is most effected by salivary gland tumors?
Elderly (60-80) Females
Where are you most likely to find Salivary Gland Tumors?
In the Parotid Gland (65-80%)
Salivary gland tumors in the parotid gland are more likely to be malignant than salivary tumors in smaller glands such as the sublingual or submandibular glands
The bigger the gland (Parotid) the MORE common it is but is LESS likely to be malignant
The smaller the gland, the LESS common is it, but the MORE likely it is to be malignant
What is a benign pre-cancerous tumor which has mixed tissues within it and is likely to reoccur.
what is the most common tumor of the parotid gland?
Pleomorphic Adenoma (60% of parotid gland tumors)
a patient presents to you with a large, painless mass in their cheek that seems to move around when prodded, what are you thinking it might be?
When a pleomorphic ademona which is benign turns into a cancerous lesion what is it called?
carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma
Where is the esophagus in relation to the trachea?
Posterior to it
where is the gastoesophageal junction
a 2-3 inch region where the stomach meets the esophagus
what is the difference between the alimentary tracts and the gastointestinal tract?
Alimentary - mouth to anus
Gastrointestinal - Esophagus to anus
what is atresia?
a normal open esophagus which transitions into a non open area - causes food to be regurgitated
what is a tracheal fistula?
Connection that shouldn’t be there between the trachea and esophagus
1) esophagus will be a blind ended pouch causing vomiting
2) esophagus may still be connected but also have a connection with the trachea that may allow food into he lungs and cause respiratory distress
what is an example of a functional problem of the esophagus
aperistalsis - uncoordinated peristalsis
achalasia - inability to relax
what is the triad that makes up achalasia
1) Incomplete Lower esophageal sphincter relaxation
2) Increased Lower Esophageal Sphincter tone
3) Esophageal Aperistalsis
What is Achalasia
Functional esophageal obstruction that is a “failure to relax”
what is it called when there is tissue in the wrong spot?
esophageal varices are secondary to portal hypertension
What is the difference between primary and secondary Achalasia?
Primary - is idiopathic loss of inhibitory innervation to the lower esophageal sphincter
- proximal dilation of esophagus due to food back up
Secondary - is caused by some other disease that created esophageal dysfunction
- we will see INFLAMMATION in Auerbach’s plexus