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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Vocab Deck (32):
1

disease-causing

virulent

2

the transfer of genetic material from one cell to another cell or from one organism to another organism

transformation

3

viruses that infect bacteria

bacteriophages

4

in a nucleic-acid chain, a sub-unit that consists of a five carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

nucleotides

5

a five carbon sugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides

deoxyribose

6

an organic base that contains nitrogen, such as a pyrimidine or purine; a subunit of a nucleotide in DNA or RNA

nitrogenous base

7

a nitrogenous base that had a double-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA or RNA; either adenine or guanine

purine

8

a nitrogenous base that has a single-ring structure; of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; thymine, cytosine, or uracil

pyrimidine

9

the rules stating that cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with thymine in DNA and that adenine pairs with uracil in DNA

base-pairing rules

10

the nucleotide bases in one strand of DNA or RNA that are paired with those of another strand; adenine pairs with thymine or uracil and guanine pairs with cytosine

complementary base pair

11

the order of nitrogenous bases on a chain of DNA

base sequence

12

the process by which DNA is copied in a cell before a cell divides by mitosis, meiosis, or binary fission

DNA replication

13

an enzyme that separates DNA strands

helicase

14

a Y-shaped point that results when the 2 strands of a DNA double helix separate so that the DNA molecule can be replicated

replication fork

15

an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule

DNA polymerase

16

in each new DNA double helix, one strand is from the original molecule, and one strand is new

semi-conservative replication

17

a change in the nucleotide base sequence of a gene or DNA molecule

mutation

18

a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis

ribonucleic acid (RNA)

19

the process of forming a nucleic acid by using another molecule as a template; particularly the process of synthesizing RNA by using one strand of a DNA molecule as a temple

transcription

20

the portion of protein synthesis that takes place at ribosomes and that uses the codons in mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chains

translation

21

the formation of protein by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA.

protein synthesis

22

a five carbon sugar present in RNA

ribose

23

a single-stranded RNA molecule that encodes the information to make a protein

messenger RNA (mRNA)

24

an organelle that contains most of the RNA in the cell and that is responsible for ribosome function

ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

25

an RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to the growing end of a polypeptide chain during translation

transfer RNA (tRNA)

26

an enzyme that starts (catalyzes) the formation of RNA by using a strand of a DNA molecule as a template

RNA polymerase

27

a nucleotide sequence on a DNA molecule to which an RNA polymerase molecule binds, which initiates the transcription of a specific gene

promoter

28

a specific sequence of nucleotides that marks the end of a gene

termination signal

29

the rule that describes how a sequence of nucleotides, read in groups of 3 consecutive nucleotides (triplets) that correspond to specific amino acids, specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein

genetic code

30

in DNA, a 3-nucleotide sequence that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start signal or a stop signal

codon

31

a region of tRNA that consists of 3 bases complementary to the codon of mRNA

anticodon

32

the complete genetic material contained in an individual

genome