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Flashcards in Evolution Study Guide Deck (38):
1

different levels of success in reproduction based on the ability to survive in the environment (filters out the weak and the strong survive and are successful).

Natural selection

2

Who came up with the theory of natural selection?

Darwin came up with this theory.

3

first attempted organization of nature, 2 different worlds (Real and perfect - world of the gods) (Illusory and Imperfect - Earth (birth defects))

Plato

4

Scala Naturae - each species has its own rung on the ladder of life, the position is perfect and permanent

Aristotle

5

Father of Taxonomy, Binomial Nomenclature

Linnaeus

6

Theory of Catastrophism (explains why organisms seem to disappear from existence on the Earth)

Cuvier

7

explains why organisms seem to disappear from existence on the Earth

Theory of Catastrophism

8

contributed that evolution takes a long time

Lamarck

9

What are the levels of taxonomic classification? How do you scientifically name an organism?

Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species. An organism is named by “Genus species”

10

wrote Principles of Populations and said more organisms are born than nature can allow to survive (survival is based on the traits an organism possesses)

Thomas Malthus

11

What did Malthus say about the number of organisms in nature?

He said more organism are born than nature can allow to survive

12

What is artificial selection? Give an example.

man selects what traits are desirable (Ex. domestic animals and plants)

13

What defines a population? (4 things)

Same species, same place, same time, and showing signs of reproduction

14

What are homologous structures? What do they help prove? Give various examples.

Homologous structures - similar structures among different species. They help prove common ancestors among species (Ex. skeletal structures, limb structure, cephalization)

15

structures that have the same function but they don’t indicate common ancestry

analogous structures

16

organisms that only appear to be closely related due to that they evolved in similar environments under similar environmental pressures.

convergent evolution

17

What are the two equations for Hardy-Weinberg Theorem? What does each variable represent?

p + q = 1 p2 + 2 pq + q2 = 1
p is dominant alleles, q is recessive alleles, p2 is homozygous dominant, 2pq is heterozygous, and q2 is homozygous recessive

18

What 5 conditions must be met for a population to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? Why are these factors important for equilibrium?

Large population, no migration, no mutations, random mating, no natural selection (nature favors equally). These factors are important because they ensure nothing will happen to break the equilibrium.

19

different traits exist within a given species or population

Variation

20

Describe 3 sources of variation that come about because of sexual reproduction.

The process of crossover, the separation of chromosomes during anaphase I and II, and the random fertilization of an egg by a sperm

21

the “bell curve” for a trait flows in one direction only

Directional

22

the “bell curve” for a trait separates in opposites directions at the same time

Diversifying

23

the “bell curve” moves to the “stable” center

Stabilizing

24

What are the three types of evolutionary flow?

Directional, Diversifying, and Stabilizing

25

competition within one sex (Ex. Males mainly fight for reproductive rights)

Intrasexual Selection

26

competition between the sexes (Ex. Males strut to attract the females attention)

Intersexual Selection

27

a geologist (someone who studies rocks and earth’s processes). He proposed the theory of gradualism.

James Hutton

28

tries to explain that the earth must be very, very old because in order for some processes to occur, such as mountain formation or canyon formation, it would require enormous amounts of time.

Theory of Gradualism

29

a geologist who wrote the Principles of Geology and proposed the Theory of Uniformitarianism

Charles Lyell

30

the same geologic processes that are occurring now are the same that occurred in the past

Theory of Uniformitarianism

31

uses the different strata of rock and index fossils to establish a time line

relative dating

32

fossils that we know a specific time period for when they exist.

index fossils

33

uses the half-life of radioactive elements that accumulate in an organism over time (C-14 used for thousands, U-238 used for millions and billions)

Absolute "Radiometric" Dating

34

a famous Harvard professor who proposed the idea of punctuated equilibrium

Jay Gould

35

long periods of stability(this is the equilibrium) are interrupted suddenly(this is the punctuated) by a major disruption(such as an asteroid hitting the earth) that causes a mass extinction of existing species to occur. Once all disruption has calmed down(usually after several years), a mass evolution of new species will occur to occupy all the new open niches that were created due to the mass extinction. (These punctuations usually mark/cause the end of an era.) (Ex. Snowball Earth, Pangaea, and the Asteroid)

punctuated equilibrium

36

an evolutionary tree based on similar characteristics

Cladogram

37

What does a “Y” shaped region in a cladogram indicate?

The “Y” indicates common ancestry

38

On cladograms, scientists like to use measurable or observable characteristics. They don’t use words such as “cute” as a derived character. Why? Give some examples of characteristics scientists may use to create a cladogram.

They use measurable or observable characters so the cladograms are objective not subjective. They use characteristics such as backbones and hair.