Flashcards in Sensory Mechanisms (8.10) – Part 1 Deck (34):
This sensation is accomplished by mechanoreceptors located in the inner ear. (Sound is basically hairs bending.)
sensation of hearing
This part of the human ear is for the collection of sound waves from the external surrounding environment.
This cartilaginous structure acts like an antenna for collecting sound waves.
This concentrates the energy as it moves toward the middle ear.
This structure converts the sound wave energy into vibrations.
Tympanic Membrane (A.K.A. ear drum)
This part is for the amplification of energy traveling toward the inner ear.
A.K.A. the hammer
A.K.A. the anvil
This bone bangs on the oval window to create ripples inside the cochlea
Stapes (A.K.A. the stirrup)
These bones are responsible for amplifying the vibration energy.
malleus, incus, stapes
These tubes, that connects with the throat, acts as a pressure valve for the ears.
This structure converts the amplified vibration energy into fluid wave energy.
This part is where the transduction of fluid waves into electrical energy occurs – the type of energy that the brain can understand.
“snail shell shaped” - This organ is located in the temporal bone of the skull.
The cochlea is filled with a fluid called __________. (This fluid is used to make ripples.)
runs on top of the Cochlear duct. (A “vestibule” is a covering.)
runs on the bottom of the Cochlear duct. It ends at the round window.
The Cochlear Duct contains the Organ of ______ (Where the ______ are located.)
This contains the mechanoreceptor hairs
This bends the hairs as the ripple energy passes over top.
Hairs bend causing neurons of the auditory nerve to create an action potential. (_______ energy).
This structure absorbs the ripple so as not to create waves in opposite direction.
A.K.A. loudness This term refers to the sound wave height – (Tall = loud); (Small = soft)
(A.K.A. Frequency) This term refers to the “number” of sound waves to hit the tympanic membrane per second.
Pitch is measured in _________ (Hz) – (20 -20,000 – human hearing) Most animals can go much higher than humans. (Evolution? Humans have lost some hearing because of life style – blind people not so.)
Sensation of Balance and Motion are accomplished by __________ (hairs bending again) in the Inner Ear.
This is the covering of the Utricle and Saccule – These structures are perilymph reservoirs.
There are 3 on each side of head. These are the actual organs that detect these sensations.
The semi-circular canals are filled with ________ fluid.
This is the swelling located at the end of a canal. This swelling contains the cupula.
This structure contains the embedded mechanoreceptors (Hairs that bend.) Movement of the body causes the perilymph to “flow” through the canals and bend the cupula hairs. Cupula bends hairs causing depolarization in neurons and the energy of motion is converted to electrical energy.
This is accomplished using receptors in the nose (olfactory – means “smell”) and mouth. (gustatory – means
“taste”) Chemicals are detected by different neurons upon contact.
Sensation of Taste
The five taste senses are:
sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami