Mini test 2 study guide (part 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Mini test 2 study guide (part 2) Deck (36):
1

What are some adaptations for living in a drier and cooler environment?

A reduced gametophyte generation (a single cell)
Reduced size of leaves
Thick, waxy cuticle on leaves
The leaves remain all year
Thick bark for protection
Cones for reproduction

2

What is a conifer?

Gymnosperms (“Naked seed plants”) that produce cones.

3

What are the 4 phyla of gymnosperms that live today?

Ginkophyta, Cycadophyta, Gnetophyta, Coniferophyta

4

What are the 4 phyla of gymnosperms that live today?

Ginkophyta, Cycadophyta, Gnetophyta, Coniferophyta

5

only one species still exist called the Ginko biloba. They have characteristic fan-shaped leaves.

Ginkophyta

6

they possess a large cone in the center of palm like leaves (similar to fronds) and are mainly used as yard ornamentation.

Cycadophyta

7

extreme desert plants. Ex: Welwitschia - among largest leaves of all plants (grow in Africa). Ephedra - produce ephedrine (used for diet pills). They become tumble weeds when they die for the scattering of seeds.

Gnetophyta

8

they produce 2 types of cones: male cones that are long, narrow, and yellow and female cones that are large and wide (if green they are unfertilized and if they are brown they are fertilized). They have evergreen needle leaves. These leaves are very thin to reduce water loss and have a very thick, sticky cuticle on the leaves. They produce thick, sticky sap to keep animals from eating them.

Coniferophyta

9

What are some adaptations that allowed angiosperms to survive in a new and wetter environment?

Xylem tissues that allowed them to transport more water to their leaves.
Larger leaves that allowed them to perform more photosynthesis.
Flowers which attracted pollinators.
Fruit which promoted seed dispersal.
Double fertilization

10

Describe the main components of a flower.

Sepals - green protective leaves that form the bud. They are non-reproductive
Petals - colored attractant leaves. They are fragrant and non-reproductive.
Stamen - the male sporophyll. The site of pollen grains and it is reproductive
Anther - contains the yellow pollen grains
Filament - a support stalk
Carpel/Pistil - female sporophyll and it is reproductive
Stigma - sticky top
Style - the neck
Ovary - contains ovules and eggs

11

green protective leaves that form the bud. They are non-reproductive

Sepals

12

colored attractant leaves. They are fragrant and non-reproductive.

Petals

13

the male sporophyll. The site of pollen grains and it is reproductive

Stamen

14

contains the yellow pollen grains in the male sporophyll

Anther

15

a support stalk in the male sporophyll

filament

16

female sporophyll and it is reproductive

Carpel/Pistil

17

sticky top of the carpel

stigma

18

the neck of the carpel

style

19

contains ovules and eggs in the carpel

ovary

20

What is a fruit? What is a pericarp?

A fruit is a ripened ovary. They developed to promote seed dispersal.
Pericarp - the skin of the carpel/fruit

21

Describe the basic structures seeds use to increase dispersal?

Kites - they get carried by the wind (ex: dandelions)
Burrs - carried by the fur of animals (ex: chestnut)
Edible - eaten by an animal and the seed will be deposited with fertilizer in a new area

22

they get carried by the wind (ex: dandelions)

kites

23

carried by the fur of animals (ex: chestnut)

burrs

24

eaten by an animal and the seed will be deposited with fertilizer in a new area

edible

25

Describe the basic fruit types.

Simple - have one ovary and will have one seed (ex: peach)
Aggregate - one flower with several carpel. It will have several seeds (ex: blackberry)
Multiple - several flowers that produce 1 fruit (ex: pineapple)
Dry - grains and nuts

26

have one ovary and will have one seed (ex: peach)

simple

27

one flower with several carpel. It will have several seeds (ex: blackberry)

aggregate

28

several flowers that produce 1 fruit (ex: pineapple)

multiple

29

grains and nuts

dry

30

What is double fertilization?

Zygote and endosperm food will be made. A pollen tube is created by one sperm. The other two enter through the micropyle (small pore). One sperm fertilizes the egg and the other fertilizes the polar nuclei.

31

has 1 cotyledon (embryonic leaf)

monocot

32

has 2 cotyledons (embryonic leaves)

dicot

33

What are the main types of angiosperms?

Basal Angiosperms - the oldest species and they don’t have xylem
Magnoliids - transitional species mainly. They are evergreens but they make flowers.
Monocots
Eudicots (“true dicots”)

34

the oldest species and they don’t have xylem

Basal Angiosperms

35

transitional species mainly. They are evergreens but they make flowers.

Magnoliids

36

Describe the importance of angiosperms.

They are sources of food and medicine and they can be used for perfumes and decorations.