Quiz 9/4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 9/4 Deck (33):
1

Communication between cells is accomplished mainly by ___________ means

chemical

2

It is absolutely essential for multi-cellular organisms to survive and function properly

Cell to cell communication

3

Involves physical contact between cells or organisms

Direct

4

The 3 types of signaling that can occur between cells and organisms

direct, local, and long distance

5

What happens in local signaling?

Growth factors that are released into a localized area. (Usually for normal growth or repair)

6

Two examples of long distance signaling

Hormones and Pheromones

7

They are released in one part of the body to travel to another part of the body (an example of long distance signaling)

Hormones

8

Chemical mate attractants released into the environment

Pheromones

9

It is analogous to talking on the phone

Signal Transduction Pathway

10

______ _____________ won the Nobel Prize in 1971 for the discovery of the signal transduction pathway. He worked at Vanderbilt University.

Earl Sutherland

11

The 3 parts of the signal transduction pathway

reception, transduction, and response

12

First part of the signal transduction pathway

reception

13

Second part of the signal transduction pathway

transduction

14

Third part of the signal transduction pathway

response

15

What happens in the first step of the signal transduction pathway (reception)?

chemical binding to membrane protein

16

What happens in the second step of the signal transduction pathway (transduction)?

This is a series of steps in the changing of the signal to something the cell can understand at the nucleus or in the cytoplasm

17

What does transduction mean?

“to change or carry through”

18

What happens in the third step of the signal transduction pathway (response)?

This usually involves making something or turning on/off an enzymatic process. Usually involves DNA transcription and translation of enzymes.

19

The actual signal molecules

ligand

20

________ binds to the receptor protein (which are like hands) on the cell membrane or inside the cell.
Attachment causes conformational shape change in the receptor protein that sets in motion the transduction pathway

Ligand

21

Most common pathway used by the cell

G-Protein Pathway

22

3 Important Protein Pathways

G-Protein Pathway, Tyrosine-Kinase Pathway, Intracellular Receptors

23

__________ ___________ ___________-protein serves as attachment point for ligand; will change shape upon attachment of the “proper” ligand

G-Protein Linked Receptor

24

acts as a relay protein carrying message to the right location

G-Protein

25

Act like a catalyst for rapidly activating several relay proteins

Tyrosine-Kinase Pathway

26

Pathway is involved in growth/repair

Tyrosine-Kinase Pathway

27

Mostly for receiving hormones and steroids (lipids that don’t need receptor proteins on the cell membrane.)

Intracellular Receptors

28

Diffuse across the phospholipid bilayer

Intracellular receptors

29

usually starts the making of mRNA within the nucleus

Transcription factors

30

A ligand attaches to the receptor protein, it changes shape, GTP leaves a phosphate and becomes GDP, and then proteins connect to the phosphates to be activated

G-protein pathway

31

The ligand attaches to the receptor protein which is attached to the g-protein and a GDP. The protein changes shape and GTP replaces the GDP. Then the g-protein breaks off once it is activated. When the ligand detaches no more g-proteins can be activated.

G-Protein Pathway

32

A ligand attaches to the receptor protein then the shape changes. GTP leave a phosphate on the receptor protein and become GDP. This activates the protein. Relay proteins attach to the phosphates to be activated.

Tyrosine-Kinase Pathway

33

Aldosterone diffuses through cell membrane, binds with receptor, then moves into nucleus and binds to DNA. This creates mRNA. mRNA leaves the nucleus and binds to ribosomes in the cytoplasm which leads to the creation of certain proteins.

Intracellular receptors