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Flashcards in Photosynthesis Vocab Deck (20):
1

an organism that produces its own nutrients from inorganic substances or from the environment instead of consuming other organisms

autotroph

2

the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce carbohydrates and oxygen

photosynthesis

3

an organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their byproducts and that cannot synthesize organic compounds from inorganic molecules

heterotroph

4

the initial reactions in photosynthesis, which are triggered by the absorption of light by photosystems I and II and include the passage of electrons along the electron transport chains, the production of NADPH and oxygen gas, and the synthesis of ATP through chemiomosis

light reactions

5

an organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs

chloroplast

6

a membrane system found within chloroplasts that contain the components for photosynthesis

thylakoid

7

a stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast (plural: grana)

granum

8

in plants, the solution that surrounds the thylakoids in a chloroplast

stroma

9

a substance that gives another substance or a mixture its color

pigment

10

a green pigment that is present in most plant cells, that gives plants their characteristic green color, and that reacts with sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to form carbohydrates

chlorophyll

11

a class of pigments that are present in the thylakoid membrane of plants and that aid in photosynthesis

carotenoid

12

in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts, a cluster of chlorophyll and other pigments molecules that harvest light energy for the light reactions of photosynthesis

photosystem

13

in chloroplasts, an acceptor of electrons lost from chlorophyll a; found in the thylakoid membrane

primary electron acceptor

14

a series of molecules, found in the inner membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts, through which electrons pass in a process that causes protons to build up on one side of the membrane

electron transport chain

15

in chloroplasts and mitochondria, a process in which the movement of protons down their concentration gradient across a membrane is coupled to the synthesis of ATP

chemiosmosis

16

a biochemical pathway of photosynthesis in which carbon dioxide is converted into glucose using ATP

Calvin Cycle

17

the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide, such as in photosynthesis

carbon fixation

18

one of many openings in a leaf or a stem of a plant that enable gas exchange to occur (plural: stomata)

stoma

19

a carbon-fixing process in which carbon dioxide is bound to a compound to form a four-carbon intermediate

C4 Pathway

20

a water-conserving, carbon-fixing process; CAM plants take in carbon at night and fix it into various organic compounds and release it during the day

CAM Pathway