chapter 11,12,13 EXAM Flashcards Preview

APES > chapter 11,12,13 EXAM > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapter 11,12,13 EXAM Deck (24):
1

exotic species

organisms that live outside their historic range

ex:
-zebra mussels
-silver carp

invasive species: organisms that spread quickly across and area (one f the causes of the 6th mass extinction)

2

clear cutting

removing all the trees from an area in a single cutting

pros:
-easy to harvest
-most economic way to harvest
-trees grow back fast bc they are the same species

cons:
-fragmentation
-less biodiversity (same species tree)
-loss of soil nutrients
-increase water temperature
-herbicides are used before replanting

3

biosphere reserves

protected areas consisting of zones that vary in the amount of permissible human impact

4

maximum sustainable yield

-the amount of a renewable resource that can be harvested w/o compromising the future availability of the resource
( y-axis: pop. size , x-axis: time )

5

endangered species act (1973)

authorized the U.S fish and wildlife service to determine which species can be listed as endangered and prohibits the harming and trading of these species.

-organisms such as the gray wolf was benefited from this act

6

CITES

CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES

-an international agreement between 175 countries
-developed in 1973

problems:
-not everyone signed it
-no standard enforcement of punishment fro not following
-some countries do not have enough money to enforce

7

first national park in U.S?

yellowstone national park

8

national parks

managed for scientific, educational or recreational uses
-fishing, hiking, camping, boating, mining and oil drilling

-managed by the national park service (NPS: manages for ecosystems)

9

national forests

-used for logging, mining, livestock, grazing, farming, recreation, conservation and oil and gas extraction

-managed by the U.S forest service

10

wildlife refugee

-protect habitats and breeding areas but are also used for hunting, fishing, mining, logging and farming.

-managed by the U.S fish and wildlife service

11

national wilderness areas

-set aside land to preserve tracts of intact ecosystems or landscapes

-managed by the U.S wilderness society
-most areas in the U.s are loaded in the western states (California, Oregon, Washington)

12

fire management

-suppressing forest fires could lead to a build-up of undergrowth and liter, which if caught on fire, will cause more damage then if the fuel supplies were low.

controlled / prescribed burns: a small fire that is purposely set when conditions are just right in order to keep fuel supplies low

13

country w the highest deforestation rate?

-malaysia, indonesia or brazil

14

type of organisms going extinct

(in order from most to least threaten w extinction)
-fish
-mammals
-reptiles
-plants
-birds

15

forest fragmentation

-when a forest area is reached and divided into smaller patches. this also divides the organisms into smaller groups.

-species become more vulnerable to extinction when this happens

16

debt-for-nature

finical transaction in which a portion of a developing foreign nation's debt is forgiven in exchange fro local investments in environmental conservation measures.

17

seed and gene banks

-preserve genetic biodiversity in a species
-store seeds as a source for future planting
-seeds may be from a rare species or accent varieties of seeds not used in commercial processing

cons:
-expensive to operate
-seeds may not survive in the further environment

18

botanical gardens

-conservation of plant species
-used for research and to educate people about plant con.

cons:
-have little storage capacity
-too little funding

19

arboreta

a place where an extensive variety of woody plants (trees) re cultivated for scientific or educational purposes.

20

zoos

-used as captive breeding sites, conserving rare and endangered species and used for public education

cons:
-animals that are kept in captivity usually don't survive once put back into the wild
-organisms got through abuse from visitors

21

biodiversity hot-spot

a biogeographic region that is both a significant reservoir of biodiversity and is threatened with destruction.

22

urban, suburban and rural areas

-most if the U.S population lives in SUBURBAN areas
-the populations were equal in all three in the 1960s
-greatest overall growth rate: SUBURBAN

23

yellowstone national park: gray wolves

w/o wolves:
-overgrazing due to increased elk, moose and antelope populations
-major soil erosion
-threatened niches

with wolves:
-decreased (back to stable) elk, moose and antelope populations
-more beavers returned to ecosystem
-grizzly bear population grew
-aspen and willow tress started to grow back

24

BLM lands

-natural resource lands used for mining, oil and gas extraction and livestock grazing

-managed by the BLM AKA the bureau of land management