chapter 14, 19, 23 EXAM Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 14, 19, 23 EXAM Deck (30):
1

biomagnification

levels of toxins are stronger (magnified) as they pass through food chains and webs. the concentration of a toxic substance will increases in each successive link in the food chain.
-higher trophic level = higher amt. of toxins

2

bioaccumulation

molecules are absorbed and stored in specific organs or tissues at higher rates than the normal level

3

DDT

a chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been widely used as an insecticide but is now banned in some countries

-highly resistant
-biologically magnified

4

GMOs

(genetically modified organisms)
-discourage biodiversity (reason why usage is controversial)
-increases antibiotic resistance
-could cause more pests to be born resistance to pesticides
-pose new allergen risks
-may harm beneficial organisms

positive effects are a higher yield of crops and faster growing crops

5

how to get rid of insect pests

-pesticides

IPM:
-introducing natural enemies
-cultivation practices
-introducing hormones and pheromones
-traps and barriers
-intercropping, polyculture, crop rotation

6

circle of poison

when residues or banned or unapproved chemicals exported to other countries can return to the country

7

integrated pest management (IPM)

-overall goal: reduce crop damage to an economically tolerable level.

steps:
1. monitoring pest damage levels
2. control crop management
3. biological controls and hormone attractors
4. careful usage of chemicals

-biological, chemical and cultivation processes such as natural predators, intercropping,crop rotation, traps and hormone interrupters.

8

desalination

purification of salt water or brackish (slightly salty) water by removal of dissolved salts

9

desertification

-when topsoil is lost and changed into desertlike land

causes: overgrazing, deforestation, prolonged drought, soil erosion and climate change

10

second green revolution

-began in the 1960s
-improved crop production further by developing high yielding crop varieties
-introduction of GMO's and modified plants

11

vegetarianism VS eating meat

advantages of being a vegetarian:
-low risk of high cholesterol
-low risk of heart disease
-low risk of high blood pressure

12

famine

widespread malnutrition and starvation in a particular area because of a shortage of food, usually caused by drought, war, flood, or earthquakes (anything that affects food production and distribution)

13

no till farming

farmers plant seeds without using a plow to turn the soil

-this prevents the carbon content from the soil to be released from the atmosphere during plowing.

14

agroforestry

agriculture + forestry

-crops and stock are raised on the same land as a stand of woody perennials.
-high biodiversity levels
-lower soil loss

15

intercropping

AKA STRIP CROPPING

planting bands of of different crops across a hillside

-prevents erosion by creating an extensive network of roots that hold onto the soil.

16

interplanting

simultaneously growing several crops on the same plot
-reduces the chance of losing a large yield of crops to pests, bad weather or other misfortunes.

17

polyculture

many different plants maturing at various rates are planned together
-less need for fertilizer and water because the plants roots systems are at different depths
-protection from soil erosion
-little need for insecticides and herbicides

18

effects of eating and not eating meat

-missing nutrients that you can only get from meat
-missing high quality protein
-

19

effects of eating and not eating grains

-

20

most commonly eaten grains

1. wheat
2. rice
3. corn

21

by-catch

any species of fish, mammals or birds that are caught that are not the "target organisms

22

fishery

the industry or occupation devoted to the catching, processing or selling of fish, shellfish or other aquatic animals

23

aquaculture

the raising of fish and other aquatic species under captivity for harvest

24

plague

-caused by a bacterium in rodents
-not transmissible from human to human
-antibiotics can be used as treatment

25

tuberculosis

-highly infectious disease
-respiratory system problems, but could also affect the brain and skin and the spine

26

ebola

-transmitted by the blood or body fluids of an infected person or animal
-death due to fever, vomiting, internal or external bleeding
-no cure or vaccine at this time

27

west nile virus

-symptoms: fever headache, rashes, muscle weakness and vomiting
-does not have a medical cure but can be treated w antibiotics

28

bird flu

-most types are limited to birds
-symptoms of regular flu
-treatment with antiviral medication

29

infectious disease

diseases caused by organisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites) can spread from person to person

30

noninfectious disease

does not spread from person to person