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Flashcards in Chapter 23 Deck (20):
1

pest

any species that
-competes w us for food
-invades lawns and gardens
-destroys wood in houses
-spreads diseases
-invades ecosystems
AKA: A NUISANCE

2

natural enemy

any predators, parasites, and disease organisms that control the population of about 98% of the potential pest species as part of the world's FREE ECOLOGICAL SERVICES

3

pesticides / biocides

chemicals to kill or control populations of organisms considered undesirable.

4

insecticides

chemicals that kill insects by blocking reproduction, clogging their airways, or disrupting their nervous system.

5

herbicides

Chemicals that kill weeds by disrupting their metabolism and growth.

6

fungicides

chemicals that kill fungi.

7

rodenticide

chemicals that kill rats and mice.

8

second generation pesticides

chemicals that can kill or repel pests, and they have improved natural pesticides produced by plants.

9

DDT

potent insecticide
-highly resistant -
-biologically magnified

10

broad-spectrum agents

a pesticide toxic to many species

11

selective spectrum agents

pesticide effective to only a narrowly defined group of organisms

12

persistence

how long a pollutant stays in the air, water, soil or the body

13

pesticide treadmill

the more pesticides you use, the less effective they are

14

circle of poison

residues or banned or unapproved chemicals exported to other countries can return to the country.

15

Silent Spring

rachel carson's book about the effects of the environment (mostly birds) with the use of pesticides.

16

dirty dozen

a group of twelve persistent organic pollutants that countries are trying to ban.

examples: DDT, and other chlorine pertaining pesticides

17

economic threshold

the point at which economic losses caused by pest damage outweigh the cost of applying a pesticide.

18

cosmetic spraying

increased pesticide use because most consumers often buy only the best looking crops even though there is nothing wrong with the blemished ones.

19

food irradiation

extends food shelf life and kills insects, parasitic worms and harmful bacteria
(low gamma radiation is used)

20

integrated pest management (IPM)

overall goal: reduce crop damage to an economically tolerable level.

-each crop and its pest are evaluated as parts of an ecological system. The farmer than develops a control plan than includes all methods of pest control in the proper order at the right time.

-biological, chemical and cultivation processes