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Flashcards in chapter 16, 17, 18, EXAM Deck (48):
1

FRACKING (HYDRAULIC FRACTURING)

-OLD TECHNIQUE TO INCREASE OIL PRODUCTION FROM WORKED OUT OIL WELLS (NO LONGER GIVING OIL TRADITIONALLY)
-WATER LACED W/ CHEMICALS IS PUMPED DOWN THE WELL TO FRACTURE THE SHALE AND RELEASES THE GAS WHICH THEN CAN BE PUMPED UP

2

FRACKING: PROS AND CONS

PRO:
-INCREASES THE PRESSURE = INCREASE FLOW RATE OF MATERIALS

CON:
-METHANE LEAKS AND CONTAMINATES GROUNDWATER

3

NATURAL GAS

-EXSISTS IN GASEOUS DEPOSITS AND AS A COMPOUND OF PETROLEUM

80-95% METHANE
5-20% ETHANE, PROPANE AND BUTANE

4

NATURAL GAS PROS

-HIGH NET ENERGY
-LOW COST W HUGE SUBSIDIES
-LESS AIR POLLUTION (LOW CO2 EMISSIONS)
-LOW LAND USE
-EASILY TRANSPORTED BY PIPELINE

5

NATURAL GAS CONS

-NONRENEWABLE
-STILL RELEASES CO2
-METHANE LEAKS
-SHIPPED AS HIGHLY EXPLOSIVE LNG
-CONTAMINATES GROUNDWATER

6

COAL

-SOLID FUEL FORMED PRIMARILY FROM THE REMAINS OF ANCIENT AND PRESERVED PLANTS

4 TYPES
1. LIGNITE (LOW HEAT CONTENT, LOW SULFUR, SOFTEST)
2. SUB-BITUMINOUS
3. BITUMINOUS (HIGH HEAT CONTENT, HIGH SULFUR)
4. ANTHRCITE (HIGH HEAT, LOW SULFUR, MOST CARBON)

7

COAL PROS

-ENERGY DENSE
-PLENTIFUL
-EASY TO EXPLOIT
-ECONOMIC COSTS LOW
-EASY TO TRANSPORT AND HANDLE
-NEEDS LITTLE REFINING

8

COAL CONS

-NONRENEWABLE
-MANY IMPURITIES RELEASED INTO THE ATMOSPHERE
-TRACES OF METALS AND POISONS IN AIR
-INCREASES SULFUR DIOXIDE LEVELS IN AIR
-ASH IS LEFT BEHIND
-CARBON LEADS TO CLIMATE CHANGE
-SEVERE LAND DISTURBANCE

9

NUCLEAR POWER

*FISSION- A NUCLEAR REACTION IN WHICH A NEUTRON STRIKES A RELATIVELY LARGE ATOMIC NUCLEUS WHICH THEN SPLITS INTO TWO MORE PARTS (URANIUM 235)

FUSION- ANUCLEAR REACTION IN WHICH LIGHTER NUCLEI ARE FORCED TOGETHER TO PRODUCE HEAVIER NUCLEI AND HEAT IS RELEASED. HOWEVER THIS HEAT IS HARD TO CONTAIN. ( SUN AND STARS )

10

NUCLEAR POWER PROS

-NO AIR POLLUTION
-USED TO LIMIT THE NEED FOR OIL
-LARGE FUEL SUPPLY

11

NUCLEAR POWER CONS

-NONRENEWABLE
-HIGH COSTS
-LOW NET ENERGY YEILD
-HIGH ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT (IF ACCIDENTS OCCUR)
-SUBJECT FOR TERRORISTS ATTACKS
-NO LONG TERM WAY TO STORE HIGHLY RADIOACTIVE WASTES

12

SOLAR CELL PROS

-RENEWABLE (REDUCES DEPENDENCE OF FOSSIL FUELS)
-FAIRLY HIGH NET ENERGY
-LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
-NO CO2 EMISSIONS
-QUICK INSTALLATION

13

SOLAR CELL CONS

-NEEDS ACCESS TO SUN
-LOW EFFICIENCY
-NEEDS ELECTRICITY STORAGE SYSTEM OR BACKUP SYSTEM
-HIGH LAND USE AND CAN DISRUPT DESERT AREAS
-HIGH COSTS

14

HYDROELECTRIC POWER

-HYDROELECTRICTY: ELECTRCITY GENERATED FROM THE KINETIC ENERGY OF MOVING WATER.

*SECOND MOST COMMON FORM OF RENEWABLE ENERGY*

15

HYDROELECTRIC POWER PROS

-RENEWABLE (REDUCES DEPENDENCE OF FOSSIL FUELS)
-HIGH ENERGY NET GAIN
-HIGH EFFIENCEY
-PROVIDES FLOOD CONTROL
-RESERVOIRS COULD BE USED FOR IRRIGATION AND RECREATION

16

HYDROELECTRIC POWER CONS

-HIGH CONSTRUCTION COSTS (DAMS)
-DAMS INTERFERE WITH FISH MIGRATION
-MAY CAUSE BOAT TRAFFIC
-HIGH INTIAL CO2 BC OF CONSTRUCTION
-GEOGRAPHICALLY LIMITED
-THREAT TO RIVER ECOSYSTEMS
-DISPLACEMENT OF PEOPLE (THREE GORGES DAM, CHINA)

17

WIND POWER

-USING A WIND TURBINE TO CONVERT KINETIC ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY

18

WIND POWER PROS

-RENEWABLE (REDUCES DEPENDENCE OF FOSSIL FUELS)
-HIGH NET ENERGY, HIGH EFFICIENCY
-LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
-LOW CO2 EMISSIONS
-QUICK CONSTRUCTION W EASY EXPANSION
-LOW UP-FRONT COSTS

19

WIND POWER CONS


-VISUAL AND NOISE POLLUTION
-REQUIRES OFF GRID BATTERY SYSTEMS
-GEOGRAPHICALLY LIMITED
-MAY INTERFERE IN FLIGHTS OF MIGRATORY BIRDS

20

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

-USING HEAT FROM THE NATURAL RADIOACTIVE DECAY OF ELEMENTS DEEP WITHIN THE EARTH (EXTREME HEAT)

21

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY PROS

-RENEWABLE (REDUCES DEPENDENCE OF FOSSIL FUELS)
-VERY HIGH EFFICIENCY
-LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT IF MANGED CORRECTLY
-LOW COST
-MODERATE CO2 EMISSIONS

22

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY CONS

-SCARCITY OF SUITABLE SITES
-EMITS HAZERDOUS GASES AND STEAM
-NOISE AND ODOR POLLUTION

23

BIOMASS

-ENERGY FROM THE SUN (ULTIMATELY ALMOST ALL ENERGY COMES FROM THE SUN. (WOOD, CHARCOAL, MANURE)

-BIOFUELS: ETHONAL AND BIODIESEL ARE USED AS SUBSTATIONS FOR GAS AND DISEL FUEL

24

BIOMASS PROS

-POTENTIALLY RENEWABLE
-CAN HELP REDUCE DEPENDENCE OF FOSSIL FUELS
-ELIMINATES WASTES FROM THE ENV.
-AVAILABLE TO EVERYONE
-MINIMAL TECHNOLOGY REQUIRED

25

BIOMASS CONS

-DEFORSTATION
-EROSION
-INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION
-POSSIBLE INCREASE IN GREENHOUSE GASE EMISSIONS

26

NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

TWO TYPES OF NUCLEAR REACTORS: LIGHT WATER

1. BOILING WATER REACTORS: USES HEAT FROM THE CORE TO BOIL WATER INTO STEAM THAT THEN SPINS TURBINES. ( 2 SYSTEMS)
2. PRESSURIZED WATER REACTORS: USES HEAT FORM THE CORE TO HEAT A SECOND WATER SUPPLY VIA A HEAT EXCHANGER. (3 SYSTEMS)

CONTROL RODS: ABORBS NEUTRONS
MODERATOR: SLOWS DOWN NEUTRONS IN FISSION PRO.
COOLANT: USUALLY WATER, REMOVES HETA
DRY CASKS: STORAGE FOR FUEL RODS

27

NUCLEAR POWER PLANT PROS

- NO AIR POLLUTION
-NO WATER POLLUTION
-LOW LAND DISTURBANCE

28

NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONS

-NUCLEAR WASTES
-LIFE SPAN: 40 YRS PRODUCING ELECTRCITY
-LOW NET ENERGY YEILD
-MANY SAFETY ISSUES

29

NUCLEAR POWER PLANT HEALTH DANGER

THE SPREAD OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL BY THE NUCLEAR PP CAUSES...
-DAMAGE TO THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
-THYROID, BREAST, STOMACH AND LEUKEMIA CANCER

TOO MUCH EXPOSURE TO RADIOACTIVITY CAN CUASE IMMEDIATE DEATH

30

NIMBY

(Not In My BackYard)
-WHEN PEOPLE SUFFER FROM MENTAL STRESS, ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION CAUSED BY CONCERNS FOR THEIR SAFETY

31

RADIOACTIVE WASTES

3 TYPES
1. HIGH LEVEL: FUEL RODS
2. LOW LEVEL: TOOLS, BUILDING MATERIALS (CONTAMINATED NOT RADIOACTIVE ITSELF)
3. TALINGS : LEFTOVER URANIUM

LOW LW ARE SHIPPED TO A REGIONAL AREA RUN NY THE GOVN. AND KEPT UNTIL THEY DECAY

HIGH LW ARE USUALLY KEPT ON SITE
(YUCCA MT WAS A POSSIBLE SITE)

32

DECOMMISSIONING A WORN-OUT POWER PLANT


3 WAYS:
1. DISMANTLE THE PLANT AND STORE ITS LARGE VOLUME OF HIGHLY RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS IN A STORAGE FACILITY

2. PUT UP A PHYSICAL BARRIER AROUND THE PLAN AND SET UP A FULL TIME SECURITY UNTIL THE PLANT IS DISMANTLED

3. ENCLOSE THE ENTIRE PLANT IN A TOMB (CONCRETE) THAT MOST LAST AND BE MONITORED FRO SEVERAL THOUSANDS OF YEARS AROUND THE CLOCK

33

THREE MILE ISLAND ACCIDENT

PENNSYLVANIA, USA, MARCH 1979

WHAT HAPPENED:
-LEVEL 5 ACCIDENT
-EQUIPMENT FAIL AND HUMAN ERROR
-CORE OVERHEATED AND PARTIAL MELTDOWN, RADIOCTIVE STEAM ESCAPES
-WORST US NUCLEAR PP ACCIDENT

DAMAGES, INJURIES, FATALITES
-$2.4 BILLION IN PROPERTY DAMAGE
-VERY LOW LEVEL HEALTH EFFECTS

*SINCE THE ACCIDENT THE DAMAGE UNIT NEVER REOPENED AND THE REST OF THE PLANT IS HIGHLY SECURE

34

CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

CHERNOBYL, UKRAINE, 1986

WHAT HAPPENED:
-LEVEL 7 ACCIDENT
-POWER SURGE DURING TESTING PROCEDURES
-STEAM EXPLOSION AND FIRE
-RELEASE OF CORE MATERIAL
-30 KM ECULSION ZONE

DAMAGES, INJURIES, FATALITES
-56 DEATHES
-4,000 CANCER FATALITES
-2 CITIES ABANDONED (CHERNOBYL AND PRIPYAT)

*DAMAGED UNIT CLOSED AND COVERED W CONCRETE. 200 TONS OF HIGHLY RW IS STILL ALONG THE UNIT.
NEW CONFINEMENT CENTER FOR 2016

35

PASSIVE SOLAR POWER

- THE USE OF BUILDING MATERIALS, BUILDING PLACEMENT AND DESIGN TO COLLECT SOLAR ENERGY TO KEEP THE BUILDING WARM OR COOL. (THROUGH WINDOWS )

* CAN LOWER YOUR ELECTRICITY BILL

36

ACTIVE SOLAR POWER

-THE USE OF DEVICES, SUCH AS SOLAR PANELS, TAHT COLLECT, TRANSPORT OR STORE SOLAR ENERGY.

37

PASSIVE AND ACTIVE SOLAR HEATING PROS

-ENERGY IS FREE
-NET ENERGY IS MODERATE (ACTIVE)
-NET ENERGY IS HIGH (PASSIVE)
-QUICK INSTALLATION
-NO CO2 EMISSIONS
-VERY LOW AIR AND WATER POLLUTION
-VERY LOW LAND DISTURBANCE
-MODERATE COST (PASSIVE)

38

PASSIVE AND ACTIVE SOLAR HEATING CONS

-NEEDS ACCESS TO THE SUN 60% OF THE TIME
-NEED HEAT STORAGE SYSTEM (ACTIVE)
- HIGH COST (ACTIVE)
-ACTIVE SYSTEMS NEED MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR
-ACTIVE COLLECTORS UNATTRACTIVE

39

PEAK DEMAND AND SAVING MONEY

PEAK DEMAND: THE MAX DEMAND THAT MIGHT BE REACHED FOR ANY SERVICE OR PRODUCT DURING A PERIOD OF TIME

-UTILITY CUSTOMERS CAN PAY LESS TO USE ENERGY WHEN DEMAND IS LOWEST AND MORE DURING PEAK DEMAND (NOT USING DURING PEAK DEMAND SAVES YOU MONEY)

40

ACHIEVING ENERGY SUSTAINABILITY

SUSTAINABLE DESIGN: IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE BUILDING WE LIVE AND WORK IN (SUPER-INSULATION, ECO-ROOFS, ENERGY SAVING APPLIANCES, USING MORE RENEWABLE ENERGY)

ENERGY CONSERVATION: FINDING WAYS TO USE LESS ENERGY (LOWERING THERMOSTAT)

-IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY BY INCREASING STANDARDS, AND OFFERING TAX CREDITS

41

COGENERATION

*USING ENERGY TWICE*
-USING FUEL TO GENERATE ELECTRIFY AND PRODUCE HEAT AT THE SAME TIME
-IMPROVES EFFICIENCY UP TO 90%

EX: STEAM IS USED TO BOTH TURN THE TURBINES AND HEAT THE BUILDING

42

RECLAMATION

-THE RETURN OF MASSIVELY SCARRED, DENUDED OR DEVASTATED LAND TO A CONDITION THAT IS ENVIRONMENTALLY USEFUL AND SOCIALLY AND POLITICALLY ACCEPTABLE

EX: COMPLYING W/ THE SURFACE MINING CONTROL AND RECLAMATION ACT

43

U.S STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE

-AN EMERGENCY FUEL STORAGE SYSTEM OF OIL. IT IS THE LARGEST EMERGENCY SUPPLY SYSTEM IN THE WORLD.

-ESTABLISHED IN 1977 AFTER MANY PROPOSES OF MAKING A RESERVE OF CRUDE OIL

44

ARCTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE
(PROS AND CONS OF OIL EXTRACTION)

PROS:
-COULD INCREASE U.S OIL AND NATURAL GAS SUPPLIES
-COULD REDUCE OIL IMPORTS
-WOULD BRING JOBS AND REVENUE TO ALASKA
-MAY LOWER OIL PRICES
-NEW DRILLING TECH. LEAVE LITTLE ENVR. IMPACT

CONS:
-LITTLE CHANCE FOR FINDING ENOUGH OIL
-COST TOO MUCH FOR THE VERY LITTLE POTENTIAL
-OIL SPILLS COULD AFFECT ECOSYSTEMS AROUND THEM

45

MOST COMMON FUEL IN THE U.S

PETROLEUM

46

MOST COMMON FUEL USED IN THE WORLD

NONRENEWABLE ENERGY (FOSSIL FUELS)

47

PROCESS OF BOILING CRUDE OIL TO MAKE DIFFERENT ENRGY SOURCES

REFINING CRUDE OIL (HEATING AND DISTILLING)

48

FASTEST GROWING SOURCE OF ENERGY

RENEWABLE ENERGY(WIND) AND NUCLEAR POWER