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Flashcards in chapter 14 Deck (19):
1

polyculture

planting a mix of perennial grasses, legumes, sunflowers, grain crops and plants that provides natural insecticides in the same field. (many different plants maturing at various time are planted together.)

-less need for fertilizers and water
-more protection to the plants from wind and water erosion
-little to no need for insecticides and herbicides

2

perennial plants

-plants that have a life cycle of more than two years
-less labor, reduces soil erosion and less pollution
ex: potatoes, tomatoes onions, basil

3

annuals

-plants that have a life cycle of one year and need to be replanted each year
ex: corn, rice, wheat, peas, watermelon

4

industrial agriculture (high-input agriculture)

-80% of world'd food supply
-uses large amounts of fossil fuels, water, commercial fertilizers and pesticides to produce a single crop (monocultures) or livestock

5

plantation agriculture

- form of industrialized agriculture
- used on developing countries growing cash crops (soybeans, coffee, sugarcane, cocoa, vegetables, bananas)

6

traditional subsistence agriculture

-mostly human labor and draft animals
-only produces enough for a farm family's survival

7

traditional intensive agriculture

-high inputs of human labor, draft labor, water, and fertilizers in order to get a higher yield per area of cultivated land

8

green revolution (1950)

-new management techniques and mechanization as well as more fertilization and irrigation, improved crop varieties and increased food production

9

second green revolution (1967-present day)

-introducing fast growing varieties of rice and wheat in several developing countries.

10

interplanting

-growing several different crops on the same plot
-reduces the chances of losing food supplies due to pests, bad weather and other misfortunes.

11

polyvarietal cultivation (interplanting)

-planting a plot w several varieties of the same crop.

12

intercropping (interplanting)

-growing two or more different crops at the same time on a plot

13

agroforestry (interplanting)

-crops and tress are planted in alternate rows

14

land degradation

-natural or human processes decrease the future ability of land to support crops, livestock or wild species

15

soil erosion

-the movement of soil components (surface litter or topsoil) from one place to another.

main causes: flowing water and wind
harmful effects: loss of soil fertility and sediments pollute water

16

desertification

-the productive potential of arid or semi-arid land falls by 10% or more because of natural climate change and human activities

17

salinization

-when the small amts. of salts in irrigation water become highly concentrated on the soil surface through evaporation.

-stunts crop growth, lowers crop yields and eventually kills plants and ruins the land

18

waterlogging

-when the soil remains under water for a prolonged periods of time, which impairs root growth due to decreased oxygen levels.

19

soil conservation

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