Flashcards in chapter 14 Deck (19):
planting a mix of perennial grasses, legumes, sunflowers, grain crops and plants that provides natural insecticides in the same field. (many different plants maturing at various time are planted together.)
-less need for fertilizers and water
-more protection to the plants from wind and water erosion
-little to no need for insecticides and herbicides
-plants that have a life cycle of more than two years
-less labor, reduces soil erosion and less pollution
ex: potatoes, tomatoes onions, basil
-plants that have a life cycle of one year and need to be replanted each year
ex: corn, rice, wheat, peas, watermelon
industrial agriculture (high-input agriculture)
-80% of world'd food supply
-uses large amounts of fossil fuels, water, commercial fertilizers and pesticides to produce a single crop (monocultures) or livestock
- form of industrialized agriculture
- used on developing countries growing cash crops (soybeans, coffee, sugarcane, cocoa, vegetables, bananas)
traditional subsistence agriculture
-mostly human labor and draft animals
-only produces enough for a farm family's survival
traditional intensive agriculture
-high inputs of human labor, draft labor, water, and fertilizers in order to get a higher yield per area of cultivated land
green revolution (1950)
-new management techniques and mechanization as well as more fertilization and irrigation, improved crop varieties and increased food production
second green revolution (1967-present day)
-introducing fast growing varieties of rice and wheat in several developing countries.
-growing several different crops on the same plot
-reduces the chances of losing food supplies due to pests, bad weather and other misfortunes.
polyvarietal cultivation (interplanting)
-planting a plot w several varieties of the same crop.
-growing two or more different crops at the same time on a plot
-crops and tress are planted in alternate rows
-natural or human processes decrease the future ability of land to support crops, livestock or wild species
-the movement of soil components (surface litter or topsoil) from one place to another.
main causes: flowing water and wind
harmful effects: loss of soil fertility and sediments pollute water
-the productive potential of arid or semi-arid land falls by 10% or more because of natural climate change and human activities
-when the small amts. of salts in irrigation water become highly concentrated on the soil surface through evaporation.
-stunts crop growth, lowers crop yields and eventually kills plants and ruins the land
-when the soil remains under water for a prolonged periods of time, which impairs root growth due to decreased oxygen levels.