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Flashcards in chapter 16 Deck (39):
1

GEOLOGY

STUDY OF DYNAIC PROCESSES OCCURRING ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE AND ITS INTERIOR

2

INTERNAL PROCESSES

GEOLOGIC CHANGES ORIGINATING FROM THE EARTH'S INTERIOR

3

CORE

EARTH'S MOST INNERMOST ZONE
-SURROUNDED BY A LIQUID CORE OF MOLTEN OR SEMISOLID MATERIAL

4

MANTLE

THICK SOLID ROCK ZONE THAT SURROUNDS THE CORE
-TWO TYPES OF MOVEMENT
CONVECTION CELLS/CURRENT
MANTLE PLUMES

5

CRUST

OUTERMOST AND THINNEST ZONE OF THE EARTH
-CONTINENTAL AND OCEAINC CRUST

6

ASTHENOSPHERE

OUTERMOST PART OF THE MANTLE
-VERY HOT
-MADE OF MELTED ROCK
-DEFORMED LIKE SOFT PLASTIC

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TECTONIC PLATES

HUGE SOLID PLATES THAT MOVE SLOWLY ACROSS THE EARTH'S SURFACE DUE TO HEATED MATERIAL IN THE MANTLE CONVECTION SELLS

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LITHOSPHERE

COMPOSED OF THE CONTINENTAL AND OCEANIC CRUST AND THE RIGID OUTERMOST PART OF THE MANTLE

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PLATE TECTONICS

THE THEORY EXPLAINING THE MOVEMENTS OF THE PLATES AND THE PROCESSES THAT OCCUR AT THEIR BOUNDARIES

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DIVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARIES

PLATES THAT MOVE APART IN OPPOSITE DIRECTIONS

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CONVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARIES

PLATES ARE PUSHED TOGETHER BY INTERNAL FORCES

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TRANSFORMING PLATE BOUNDARIES

PLATES SLIDE AND GRIND PAST ONE ANOTHER ALONG A FRACTURE IN THE LITHOSPHERE

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SUBDUCTION

WHEN A OCEANIC PLATE COLLIDES WITH A CONTINENTAL PLATE, THE CONTINENTAL PLATE USALLY RIDES OVER THE DESNER OCEANIC PLATE AND PUSHES IT DOWN INTO THE MANTLE

14

EXTERNAL PROCESSES

GEOLOGIC CHANGES BASED ON DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY ON ENERGY FROM THE SUN AND ON GRAVITY (RATHER THAN ON THE HEAT FOUND IN THE INTERIOR)

15

EROSION

MAJOR EXTERNAL PROCESS
-MATERIAL IS DISSOLVED, LOOSENED, OR WORN AWAY FROM ONE PART OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE AND DEPOSITED ELSEWHERE

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WEATHERING

MAJOR EXTERNAL PROCESS
-PHYSICAL,CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL
-BREAKS DOWN ROCKS AND MINERALS INTO SMALLER PARTICLES THAT CAN BE ERODED

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PHYSICAL / MECHANICAL WEATHERING

LARGE ROCK MASS IS BROKEN INTO SMLLER FRAGMENTS
-FROST WEGDING
-COOL AND MOIST CLIMATES

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CHEMICAL WEATHERING

CHEMICAL REACTIONS DECOMPOSE A MASS OF ROCK (CHANGE THE COMPOSITION)

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BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING

CONVERSION OF ROCKS AND MINERALS INTO SMALLER PARTICLES THROUGH THE ACTIONS OF LIVING THINGS
-LICHENS

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EARTHQUAKE

THE FAULTING OR A LATER ABRUPT MOVEMENT ON A EXISTING FAULT

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VOLCANOES

MAGMA REACHES THE EARTH'S SURFACE THROUGH A CENTRAL VENT OR LONG CRACK

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MINERAL

AN ELEMENT OR INORGANIC COMPOUND THAT OCCURS NATURALLY AND IS SOLID WITH REGULAR INTERNAL CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE

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ROCK

SOLID COMBINATION OF ONE OR MORE MINERALS THAT IS PART OF THE EARTH'S CRUST

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IGNEOUS ROCK

-FORMED BELOW OR ON EARTH'S SURFACE
-MOLTEN ROCK WELLS UP AND COOLS AND HARDENS TO FORM A ROCK

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SEDIMENTARY ROCK

-FORMED FROM SEDIMENT PRODUCED WHEN EXISTING ROCKS ARE WEATHERED AND ERODED INTO SMALL PIECES.
-THEY ARE TRANSFERRED AND ACCUMULATED OVER TIME TO FORM A ROCK

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METAMORPHIC ROCK

-PRODUCED WHEN A PREEXISTING ROCK IS SUBJECTED TO HIGH TEMPERATURE AND A LOT OF PRESSURE

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ROCK CYCLE

PHYCIAL AND CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS TAHT CHANGE ROCKS FROM ONE TYPE TO ANOTHER

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NON-RENEWABLE MINERAL RESOURCE

CONCENTRATION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING MATERIAL IN AND OR ON THE EARTH'S CRUST THAT CAN BE EXTRACTED AND PROCESSED BUT THE TAKE A LONG TIME TO PRODUCE

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ORE

A ROCK CONATING ENOUGH FOR ONE OR MORE METALLIC MINERALS TO BE MINED PROFITABLY

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SURFACE MINING

MINING SHALLOW DEPOSITS

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SUBSURFACE MINING

MINING DEEP DEPOSITS

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OVERBURDEN

LAYER OF SOIL AND ROCK OVERLYING A MINERAL DEPOSIT

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SPOILS

UNWANTED ROCK AND OTHER WASTE MATERIALS PRODUCED WHEN A MATERIAL IS REMOVED FORM THE EARTH'S SURFACE OR SUBSURFACE

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OPEN PIT MINING

Machine dig holes and remove ores, sand,gravel and stone.

35

DREGDING

Chain buckets and draglines scrape up underwater mineral deposits.

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ARE STRIP MINING

A earth-mover strips away the overburden, a huge power shovel digs a cut to remove the mineral deposit and then the trench is refilled.

37

CONTOUR STRIP MINING

Used on hilly or mountainous terrainEarthmover removes overburden and coal is extracted with a power shovel.

38

MOUNTAINTOP REMOVAL

Involves explosives, massive shovels and huge machinery called draglines to remove the top of the mountain and expose the coals underneath.

39

DEPLETION TIME

HOW LONG IT TAKES TO USE UP A CERTAIN PORTION OF THE RESERVES OF A MINERAL AT A GIVEN RATE