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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (59)
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1

cardiovascular disease

CVD - the array of conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels

2

peripheral vascular disease

narrowing of the peripheral blood vessels

3

stroke

blood vessels that feed the brain is clogged, leading to blood flow disruption to the brain

4

coronary heart disease

CHD - in which arteries that supply the heart muscle with oxygen and nutrients are narrowed by fatty deposits, such as cholesterol and triglycerides

5

angioplasty

procedure in which a balloon-tipped catheter is inserted and when inflated to widen the inner lumen of the artery

6

risk factors

lifestyle and genetic variables that may lead to disease

7

warning signs of stroke

-sudden weakness or numbness of face, arm or leg particularly on one side
-sudden severe headache
-sudden confusion, dizziness

8

warning signs of a heart attack

-chest pain, squeezing that may go on for several minutes
-pain or discomfort between shoulder blades

9

stroke risk factors

unchangeable

-increased risk over 55
-higher risk in men
-African Americans at higher risk
-family history

10

stroke risk factors

manageable factors

-tobacco use - stop
-blood pressure - normal range
-diet
-activity level
-weight
-cholesterol
-diabetes

11

CHD risk factors

high to low

-unhealthy diet
-physical inactivity
-smoking
-body mass index
hypertension

12

electrocardiogram

ECG or EKG- recording of the electrical activity of the heart

13

myocardium

heart muscle

14

stress electrocardiogram

exercise test where the workload is gradually increased until the individual reaches maximal fatigue

15

stress electrocardiogram

also known as

graded stress test or maximal exercise tolerance test

16

cholesterol

waxy substance, a steroid alcohol, found only in animal fats and oil and used in making cell membranes, the fatty sheath around nerve fibers and other necessary substances

17

blood lipids

fats - cholesterol and triglycerides

18

high density lipoproteins

HDL - cholesterol transporting molecules in the blood that helps clear cholesterol from the blood.
GOOD CHOLESTEROL

19

low density lipoproteins

LDL - cholesterol transporting molecules in the blood that tend to increase cholesterol from the blood.
BAD CHOLESTEROL

20

Very low density lipoproteins

VLDL - triglyceride, cholesterol and phospholipid transporting molecules in the blood

21

chylomicrons

triglyceride transporting molecules

22

stress electrocardiogram

Recommended for

-men over 45, women over 55
-2 or more CHD risk factors
-symptomatic
-family history

23

atherosclerosis

fatty or cholesterol deposits in the walls of the arteries leading to formation of plaque

24

myocardial infarction

heart attack - damage to or death of an area of the heart muscle as a result of an obstructed artery to that area

25

angina pectoris

chest pain associated with CHD

26

reverse cholesterol transport

process in which HDL molecules attract cholesterol and carry it to the liver, where it is changed to bile and eventually excreted in the stool

27

total cholesterol range

less than 200 = desirable
over 240 = high risk

28

LDL cholesterol

less than 100 = optimal
over 190 = very high

29

HDL cholesterol

less than 40 = low
over 60 = high risk

30

triglycerides

fats formed by glycerol and three fatty acids;
also called free fatty acids