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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (69)
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1

strength training

program designed to improve muscular strength and/or endurance through a series of progressive resistance (weight) training exercises that overload the muscular system and cause physiological development

2

resistance training

see strength training

3

well planned strength training program leads to

-increased muscular strength and endurance
-power
-muscle tone
-tendon and ligament strength

4

activities of daily living

everyday behaviors that people normally do to function in life

5

sarcopenia

age related loss of lean body mass, strength and function

6

metabolism

all energy and material transformations that occur within living cells and are necessary to sustain life

7

hypertrophy

an increase in the size of the cell

8

resting metabolism

amount of energy (expressed in milliliters of oxygen pre minute or total calories per day) an individual requires during resting conditions to sustain proper body function

9

regular strength training

health standpoint

increase or maintain muscle and a higher resting metabolic rate
-encourages weight loss and maintenance
-prevents obesity
-lessens risk of injury
-reduces chronic low back pain
-alleviates arthritis pain
-improves bone density
-prevents osteoporosis
-reduces high blood pressure
helps control blood sugar

10

good strength enhances quality of life in older folk by

-improves balance and restores mobility
-makes lifting and reaching easier
-decreases risk for injuries and falls
-stresses the bones and preserves bone mineral density thereby decreasing the risk for osteoporosis

11

anabolic steroids

synthetic versions of male sex hormone testosterone , which promotes muscle development and hypertrophy

12

muscular strength

the ability of muscle to exert maximum force against resistance
1 repetition on max

13

muscular endurance

the ability of a muscle to exert submaximal force repeatedly over time

14

one repetition maximum

1 RM - the maximum amount of resistance an individual is able to lift in a single effort

15

Strength test options

muscular strength: Hand grip strength test
Muscular endurance test
muscular strength and endurance test

16

Hand grip strength test fitness standard

Isometric test
used to supplement other two tests
50-60 = average

17

Muscular endurance test

three exercises selected to test upper, lower and mid body muscle groups
does not require strength training equipment

18

Muscular endurance test

men's exercises

-bench jumps
-modified dips
-bent-leg curl up (abdominal crunch)

19

Muscular endurance test

women's exercises

-bench jumps
-modified push-ups
-bent-leg curl up (abdominal crunch)

20

muscular strength and endurance test

-you lift submaximal resistances as many times as possible using six strength training exercises
-resistance is determined according to selected body fat percentages

21

muscular strength and endurance test

6 exercises

-lat pull down
-leg extension
-bench press
-bent leg curl up (abdominal crunch)
-leg curl
-arm curl

22

muscular strength and endurance test

strength category

13-18 is average

23

atrophy

decrease in size of the cell

24

motor neurons

nerves connecting the central nervous system to the muscle

25

motor unit

the combination of motor neuron and muscle fibers that the neuron innervates

26

slow-twitch fibers

muscle fibers with greater aerobic potential and slow speed of contraction

27

fast-twitch fibers

muscle fibers with greater anaerobic potential and fast speed of contraction
most important in strength related activities

28

factors that affect strength

neural stimulation
type of muscle fiber
overload
specificity of training
training volume
periodization

29

neural stimulation

number of nerve fibers innervated and frequency of stimulation determine strength of the muscle contraction

30

short term gains

usually gains in first 2-3 weeks are due to enhanced neural function by increasing motor neuron stimulation and muscle fiber recruitment