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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (182):
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Apex

Lower tip of heart

1

Arteriole

Small artery

2

Artery

Largest type of blood vessel, carries blood away from heart

3

Atrioventricular bundle

specialized muscle fibers connecting the atria with the ventricles and transmitting electrical impulses between them

4

Atrioventricular node

Specialized tissue in the wall between the atria. Electrical impulses pass from the pacemaker through the AV node and the atrioventricular bundle toward the ventricles

5

Atrium

One of two upper chambers of the heart

6

Capillary

Smallest blood vessel

7

Coronary arteries

Blood vessels that branch from the aorta and carry oxygen rich blood to the heart muscle

8

Diastole

Relaxation phase of the heartbeat

9

Endocardium

Inner lining of the heart

10

Endothelium

Innermost lining of blood vessels

11

Mitral valve

Valve between the lt atrium and lt ventricle

12

Normal sinus rhythm

Heart rhythm originating in the sinoatrial node with a rate in patients at rest of 60 to 100 bpm

13

Specialized nervous tissue in rt atrium that begins the heartbeat

Pacemaker

14

Pericardium

Double layered membrane surrounding heart

15

Pulmonary artery

Artery carrying oxygen poor blood from the heart to the lungs

16

Pulmonary circulation

Flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart

17

Pulmonary valve

Valve positioned between the rt ventricle and pulmonary artery

18

Pulmonary vein

One of the two pairs of vessels carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the lt atrium of the heart

19

Septum

Partition or wall dividing a cavity, such as between the rt and lt atria and rt and lt ventricles

20

Sinoatrial node

Pacemaker of the heart

21

Sphygmomanometer

Instrument to measure blood pressure

22

Systemic circulation

Flow of blood from body tissue to the heart and then from the heart to body tissues

23

Systole

Contraction phase of heart

24

Tricuspid valve

Located between rt atrium and rt ventricle

25

Valve

Structure in veins or in the heart that temporal that closes an opening so that blood flows in only one direction

26

Vein

Thin walled vessel that carrier blood from body tissues and lungs back to the heart

27

Vena cava

Largest vein in body

28

Ventricle

One of two lower chambers of heart

29

Venule

Small vein

30

Aorta (Cf)

Aort/o

31

Artery (CF)

Arter/o, arteri/o

32

Yellowish plaque, fatty substance (Cf)

Ather/o

33

Atrium (Cf)

Atri/o

34

Arm (Cf)

Brachi/o

35

Cholesterol (Cf)

Cholesterol/o

36

Heart (Cf)

Coron/o, cardi/o

37

Blue (Cf)

Cyan/o

38

Mucus

Myx/o

39

Oxygen

Ox/o

40

Pericardium (Cf)

Pericardi/o

41

Rhythm

Rrhythm/o

42

Pulse

Sphygm/o

43

Chest

Steth/o

44

Clot

Thromb/o

45

Valve (Cf)

Valvul/o, valv/o

46

Vessel (Cf)

Vas/o, vascul/o, Angi/o

47

Vein (Cf)

Ven/o, ven/I, Phleb/o

48

Ventricle (Cf)

Ventricul/o

49

Arrhythmias

Abnormal heart rhythms

50

Bradycardia

Failure of proper conduction of impulses from the SA node through the AV node to the bundle of HIS

51

Flutter

Rapid but regular contractions, usually of the atria

52

Fibrillation

Very rapid, random, inefficient, and irregular contractions of the heart

53

Congenital heart disease

Abnormalities in the heart at birth

54

Coarctation of aorta (CoA)

Narrowing of the aorta

55

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

Passageway between the aorta and the pulmonary artery remains open after birth

56

Septal defects

Small holes in the wall between the atria or the ventricles

57

Tetralogy of Fallot

Congenital malformation involving four distinct heart defects

58

Congestive heart failure

Heart is unable to pump it's required amount of blood

59

Coronary artery disease

Disease of the arteries surrounding the heart

60

Ischemia

Blood flow is decreased

61

Endocarditis

Inflammation of inner lining of heart

62

Hypertensive heart disease

High blood pressure affecting the heart

63

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP)

Improper closure of mitral valve

64

Murmur

Extra heart sound, heard between normal beats

65

Pericarditis

Inflammation of membrane surrounding the heart

66

Rheumatic heart disease

Heart disease caused by rheumatic fever

67

Aneurysm

Local widening of an arterial wall

68

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

Blood clot forms in large vein, usually in lower limb

69

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD)

Blockage of arteries carrying blood to legs, arms, kidneys and other organs

70

Raynaud disease

Recurrent episodes of pallor and cyanosis primarily in fingers and toes

71

Varicose veins

Abnormally swollen and twisted veins, usually occurring in the legs

72

Acute coronary syndromes (ACSs)

Unstable angina and myocardial infarction

73

Angina

Chest pain

74

Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE)

Dilates blood vessels

75

Auscultation

Listening for sounds In blood vessels or other body structures

76

Biventricular pacemaker

Device enabling ventricles to beat together so more blood is pumped from heart

77

Bruit

Abnormal blowing or swishing sound heard during auscultation of an artery or organ

78

Cardiac tamponade

Pressure on the heart caused by fluid in the pericardial space

79

Claudication

Pain,tension, weakness in a leg after walking has begun but absence of pain at rest

80

Digoxin

Drug that treats arrhythmias and strengthens heartbeat

81

Embolus

Clot that travels a distance and suddenly blocks a blood vessel

82

Infarction

Area of dead tissue

83

Nitrates

Drugs that treat angina

84

Nitroglycerin

Nitrate drug

85

Occlusion

Closure of a blood vessel due to blockage

86

Palpitations

Uncomfortable sensations in the chest related to cardiac arrhythmias

87

Patent

Open

88

Pericardial friction rub

Scraping or grating noise heard on auscultation of heart, suggestive of pericarditis

89

Statins

Drugs used to lower cholesterol

90

Thrill

Vibration felt over an area of turmoil in blood flow

91

Vegetations

Clumps of platelets, clotting proteins, microorganisms, and red blood cells of diseased heart valves

92

BNP test

Measurement of brain natriuretic peptide in blood -elevated in patients with dyspnea

93

Cardiac biomarkers

Chemicals are measured in the blood as evidence of a heart attack

94

Lipid tests

Measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides in a blood sample

95

Lipoprotein electrophoresis

Lipoproteins are physically separated and measured in a blood sample

96

Angiography

X-ray imaging of blood vessels after injection of contrast material

97

Computed topography angiography (CTA)

Three dimensional X-ray images of the heart and coronary arteries using ct

98

Digital subtraction angiography (DSA)

Video equipment and a computer produce X-ray images of blood vessels

99

Electron beam computed tomography (EBCT)

Electron beams and CT identify calcium deposits in and around coronary arteries to diagnose early CAD

100

Doppler ultrasound studies

Sound waves measure blood flow within blood vessels

101

Echocardiography (ECHO)

Echoes generated by high frequency sound waves produce images of the heart

102

Positron emission tomography scan (PET)

Images show blood flow and myocardial function following uptake of radioactive glucose

103

Technetium Tc 99m sestamibi scan

Used to detect heart damage

104

Thallium 201 scan

Concentration of radioactive thallium is measure to give information about blood supply to the heart muscle

105

Cardiac MRI

Images of the heart are produced using radio wave energy in a magnetic field

106

Cardiac catheterization

Thin flexible tube is guided into the heart via a vein of artery- detects pressures and patterns of blood flow

107

Holter monitoring

An ECG device is worn during a 24 hour period to detect cardi ac arrhythmias

108

Stress test

Exercise tolerance test determines the hearts response to physical exertion

109

Catheter ablation

Brief delivery of radio frequency energy to destroy areas of heart tissue that may be causing arrhythmia a

110

Endarterectomy

Surgical removal of plaque from the inner layer of an artery

111

Extracorporeal circulation

Heart lung machine diverts blood from the heart and lungs while heart is repaired

112

Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)

Balloon tipped catheter is inserted into a coronary artery to open the artery

113

AAA

Abdominal aortic aneurysm

114

ACLs

Advanced cardiac life support

115

ACS

Acute coronary syndrome

116

ADP

Adenosine diphosphate

117

AED

Automatic external defibrillator

118

AF, a-fib

Atrial fibrillation

119

AMI (D)?

Automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator

120

AMI

Acute myocardial infarction

121

ARVD

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia

122

AS

Aortic stenosis

123

ASD

Atrial septal defect

124

AV, A-V

Atrioventricular

125

AVR

Aortic valve replacement

126

BBB

Bundle branch block

127

BNP

Brain natriuretic peptide

128

CABG

Coronary artery bypass grafting

129

CAD

Coronary artery disease

130

CCU

Coronary care unit

131

Cath

Catheterization

132

CHF

Congestive heart failure

133

CoA

Coarctation of the aorta

134

CRT

Cardiac resynchronization therapy

135

CTNI, cTnI, CTNT, cTnT

Cardiac troponin-I and cardiac troponin T

136

DES

Drug eluding stent

137

DSA

Digital subtraction angiography

138

DVT

Deep vein thrombosis

139

ECMO

Extracorpeal membrane oxygenation

140

ECHO

Echocardiography

141

EF

Ejection fraction

142

EPS

Electrophysiology study

143

ETT

Exercise tolerance test

144

ETT-MIBI

Exercise tolerance test combined with radioactive tracer

145

EVAR

Endovascular aneurysm repair

146

HDL

High density lipoprotein

147

HTN

Hypertension

148

IABP

Intra-aortic balloon pump

149

ICD

Implantable cardioverter defibrillator

150

LAD

Left anterior descending

151

LMWH

Low molecular weight heparin

152

LV

Left ventricle

153

LVAD

Left ventricular assists device

154

LVH

Left ventricular hyper trophy

155

MI

Myocardial infarction

156

MUGA

Multiple gated acquisition scan

157

MVP

Mitral valve prolapse

158

NSR

Normal sinus rhythm

159

NSTEMI

Non ST elevation myocardial infarction

160

PAC

Premature atrial contraction

161

PAD

Peripheral arterial disease

162

PCI

Percutaneous coronary intervention

163

PDA

Patent ductus arteriosus
posterior descending artery

164

PE

Pulmonary embolus

165

PVC

Premature ventricular contraction

166

SA
S-A node

Sinoatrial node

167

SCD

Sudden cardiac death

168

SOB

Shortness of breath

169

SPECT

Single photon emission computed tomography

170

STEMI

St elevation myocardial infarction

171

SVT

Supraventricular tachycardia

172

TAVR

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement

173

TEE

Transesophageal echocardiography

174

TEVAR

Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair

175

TGA

Transposition of the great arteries

176

tPA

Tissue type plasminogen activator

177

UA

Unstable angina

178

VF

Ventricular fibrillation

179

VSD

Ventricular septal defect

180

VT

Ventricular tachycardia

181

WPW

Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome