Chapter 19/21 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 19/21 Deck (199):
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Synthetic chemicals contain alkyl groups that attack DNA, causing strand breaks

Alkylating agents

1

Small sac tumor shape

Alveolar

2

Loss of differentiation of cells

Anaplasia

3

Process of forming new blood vessels

Angiogenesis

4

Inhibit formation of substances necessary to make DNA therefore preventing cell division

Antimetabolites

5

Drugs that block mitosis, ex: taxol- breast and ovarian cancers

Antimiotics

6

Normal cells produce and block tumor growth or stimulate immune system to fight cancer

Biological response modifiers

7

Radiotherapy that uses insertion of sealed containers into body cavities

Brachytherapy

8

Ill health and malnutrition

Cachexia

9

Localized cancer

Carcinoma in situ

10

Process of burning tissue to destroy it

Cauterization

11

Pieces of DNA that when activated by mutations can cause a normal cell to become malignant

Cellular oncogenes

12

Extracts a thin core of tissue

Core needle biopsy

13

Sub freezing temp used to destroy tissue

Cryosurgery

14

Sac of fluid tumor

Cystic tumor

15

Chromosomes of cells are examined for breaks, translocations and deletions in DNA

Cytogenic analysis

16

More primitive, immature cells

Dedifferentiation

17

Highly abnormal cells but not cancerous

Dysplastic

18

Electricity and heat used to kill tumor cells

Electrocauterization

19

Low energy beams used for more surface level tumor treatment

Electron beams

20

Tumor and a large area of tissue are removed

En bloc resection

21

Tumor cells that resemble epithelial tissue

Epidermoid

22

Removal of tumor and margin of normal tissue

Excisional biopsy

23

Removes tumor, entire effected organ and all tissue around it.

Exenteration

24

Cells are scraped from region of affected area and examined

Exfoliative cytology

25

Applying radiation to a tumor from a source outside the body

External beam irradiation

26

Visual examination of colon

Fiberoptic colonoscopy

27

Tumor of fibers of the flesh

Fibrosarcoma

28

Increase in connective tissue

Fibrosis

29

Dimensions of the body undergoing radiation

Fields

30

Very thin needle goes into tumor to pull out cells for microscopic examination

Fine needle aspiration

31

Small glandular sac arrangement of tumors

Follicular

32

Giving radiation in small repeated doses

Fractionation

33

Destruction of tissue by electric sparks generated by a high frequency current

Fulguration

34

Mushroom patterned growing tumor

Fungating tumor

35

Degree of maturity of tumor cells

Grading of tumors

36

Unit of absorbed radiation dose

Gray

37

Visual appearance of tumors to naked eye

Gross description of tumors

38

Localizing antigens or proteins in tissues using labeled antibodies

Immunohistochemistry

39

Piece if tumor is removed for examination to establish a diagnoses

Incisional biopsy

40

Extending beyond normal tissues boundaries

Infiltrative

41

Having ability to enter and destroy surrounding tissues

Invasive

42

Exposure to any form of radiant energy (light, heat, x-rays)

Irradiation

43

Large electronic device that produces high energy x-ray beams for treatment of deep seated tumors

Linear accelerator

44

Continuous growth, invasive and metastasis tumor

Malignant tumor

45

Soft tumor

Medullary tumor

46

Embryonic connective tissue

Mesenchymal

47

Abnormal transformation of adult differentiation cells to another specific tissue type- is reversible

Metaplasia

48

Spread of malignant tumor to a new site

Metastasis

49

Appearance of tumors viewed by microscope

Microscopic description of tumor

50

Tumors composed of different types of tissues

Mixed-tissue tumors

51

Drugs that block the function of growth factors, their pathways and receptors

Molecularly targeted drugs

52

Causing genetic change

Mutagenic

53

To stop spinal cord

Myelosuppression

54

Aer/o

Air

55

Sensitivity to pain

Alges/o

56

Bronchial tube

Bronch/o

57

Drug

Chem/o

58

Mixture

Cras/o

59

Skin

Chutane/o

60

Skin

Derm/o

61

Work

Erg/o

62

Feeling, sensation

Esthes/o

63

Tissue

Hist/o

64

Sleep

Hypn/o

65

Treatment

Iatr/o

66

Tongue

Lingu/o

67

Mold, fungus

Myc/o

68

Stupor

Narc/o

69

Mouth

Or/o

70

Drug

Pharmac/o

71

Itching

Prurit/o

72

Fever

Pyret/o

73

Sheath(of brain and spinal cord)

Thec/o

74

Poison

Tox/o or toxic/o

75

Vessel

Vas/o

76

Vein

Ven/o

77

Life

Vit/o

78

Upward, excessive, again (prefix)

Ana-

79

Against (prefix)

Anti-

80

Against, opposite (prefix)

Contra-

81

Other that, apart from (prefix)

Par-

82

Together, with (prefix)

Syn-

83

a.c., ac

Before meals (ante cibum)

84

ACE

Angiotensin-converting enzyme

85

Ad lib

Freely, as desired

86

APAP

Acetaminophen (Tylenol)

87

ARB

Angiotensin II receptor blocker

88

b.i.d., bid

Two times a day

89

c- (line is suppose to be above the c)

With

90

Caps

Capsule

91

cc

Cubic centimeter

92

FDA

U.s food and drug administration

93

gm, g

Gram

94

gtt

Drops

95

h

Hour

96

h.s., hs

At bedtime

97

H2 blocker

Histamine H2 receptor antagonist

98

HRT

Hormone replacement therapy

99

IM

Intramuscular

100

INH

Isoniazid - anti tuberculosis agent

101

IV

Intravenous

102

MAOI

Monoamine oxidase inhibitor- an antidepressant

103

mg

Milligram

104

ml, mL

Milliliter

105

NPO

Nothing by mouth

106

NSAID

Noneteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

107

P- (line above p)

After (post)

108

p.c., pc

After meals

109

PCA

Patient- controlled analgesia

110

PDR

Physicians desk reference

111

PO, p.o., po

By mouth

112

p.r.n., prn

As needed, as necessary

113

Pt

Patient

114

q

Every

115

q.h., qh

Every hour

116

q2h

Every 2 hours

117

q.i.d, qid

Four times a day

118

q.s., qs

Sufficient quantity

119

qAM

Every morning

120

qPM

Every evening

121

Rx

Prescription

122

s-(line above s)

Without

123

SERM

Selective estrogen receptor modulator

124

Sig.

Directions-how to take medication

125

SL

sublingual

126

s.o.s.

If it is necessary

127

SSRI

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor- an antidepressant

128

subQ

Subcutaneous

129

tab

Tablet

130

TCA

Tricyclic antidepressant

131

t.i.d, tid

Three times daily

132

Drug action in which the combo of two similar drugs is equal to the sum of the effects of each

Additive action

133

Particles of drug suspended in air

Aerosol

134

Exaggerated hypersensitivity rx

Anaphylaxis

135

Combo of two drugs gives less that an additive effect

Antagonistic action

136

Agent given to counteract an unwanted effect of a drug

Antidote

137

Commercial name for a drug

Brand name

138

Chemical formula for a drug

Chemical name

139

Factors that prevent the use of a drug or treatment

Contraindications

140

Drugs that produce tolerance and dependencies and have potential for abuse or addiction

Controlled substances

141

Physiological need for a drug

Dependence

142

Physical and psychological dependence on and craving for a drug

Addiction

143

Amount of drug administered, usually measured in milligrams

Dose

144

Legal non commercial name for a drug

Generic name

145

Unexpected effect produced in a sensitive patient but is not normal

Idiosyncratic reaction

146

Study of interaction of drugs and their target molecules such as enzymes, or cell surface receptors

Molecular pharmacology

147

Drugs given by injections into the skin, muscles, or veins

Parenteral administration

148

Study of drug effects within the body

Pharmacodynamics

149

Study of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion over a period of time

Pharmacokinetics

150

Target substance with which a drug interacts in the body

Receptor

151

Lack of beneficial response,

Resistance

152

Desired and beneficial effect of a drug

Response

153

Drugs are given by placement under the tongue

Sublingual administration

154

Combo of two drugs causes an effect that is greater that the sum of the individual effects of each drug alone

Synergism

155

Instrument for introducing or withdrawing fluids from the body

Syringe

156

Drugs are applied locally on the skin or mucous membrane of the body

Topical application

157

Harmful effects of the drug

Toxicity

158

Drug that lowers blood pressure

ACE inhibitor

159

Central nervous system stimulant

Amphetamine

160

Relieves pain

Analgesic

161

Male hormone

Androgen

162

Reduces or eliminates sensation. General and local

Anesthetic

163

Lowers Bp by preventing angiotensin from acting on receptors in blood vessels

Angiotensin II receptor blocker

164

Slows the uptake of androgens or interferes with their effect in tissues

Anti androgen

165

Treats abnormal heart rhythms

Antiarrhythmic

166

Prevents blood clotting

Anticoagulant

167

Prevents convulsions (abnormal brain activity)

Anticonvulsant

168

Relieves symptoms or depression

Antidepressant

169

Prevents nausea and vomiting

Antiemetic

170

Helps prevent symptoms of allergy

Antihistamine

171

Relieves nausea and vomiting

Antinauseant

172

Reduces the tendency of platelets to stick together and form a clot

Antiplatelet

173

Inhibits secretion of acid by cells lining the stomach

Anti ulcer

174

Reduces estrogen in the blood by blocking the enzyme aroma taste

Aromatase inhibitor

175

Kills bacteria

Bactericidal

176

Inhibits bacterial growth

Bacteriostatic

177

Prevents bone loss in osteoporosis

Bisphosphonate

178

Increases the force of contraction of heart

Cardiac glycoside

179

Acts on heart and blood vessels

Cardiovascular drug

180

Relieves constipation

Cathartic

181

Binds to dietary cholesterol and prevents its uptake from the gastrointestinal tract

Cholesterol-binding drug

182

Lowers cholesterol by preventing its production by the liver

Cholesterol- lowering drug

183

Increases production of urine

Diuretic

184

Promotes vomiting

Emetic

185

Hormone for the adrenal cortex that raises blood sugar and reduces inflammation

Glucocorticoid

186

Produces sleep of a trance like state

Hypnotic

187

Weak cathartic

Laxative

188

Habit forming drug that relieves pain by producing stupor or insensibility

Narcotic

189

Female hormone that stimulates uterine lining during pregnancy

Progestin

190

Relieves constipation

Purgative

191

A mildly hypnotic drug that relaxes without necessary producing sleep

Sedative

192

Stimulates cellular metabolism

Thyroid gland

193

Controls anxiety and sever disturbances of behavior

Tranquilizer

194

Antipruitic

Against itching

195

Antipyretic

Against fever

196

Erythromyocin

Pertaining to red fungus

197

Intrathecal

Within sheath of brain

198

Synergistic

Working together