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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (70):
1

Learning

how experience changes the brain

2

Memory

deals with how these changes are stored and subsequently reactivated

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bilateral medial temporal lobectomy

the removal of the medial portions of both temporal lobes including most of the hippocammpus,amygdala, and adjacent cortex

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Lobectomy

an operation in which a lobe, or a major part of one, is removed from the brain

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lobotomy

an operation in which lobe, or a major part of one, is separated from the rest of the brain by a large cut but is not removed

6

retrograde amnesia

backward-acting... those on the latter tests lead to a diagnosis

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anterograde amnesia

forward acting.... difficulty in storing short-term memory and long-term memory

8

Short-term memory

Storage of new information for brief periods of time while a person attends to it

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Long-term memory

storage of new information once the person stops attending to it

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Digit span

the classic test of short-term memory, six digits

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Digit Span + 1 Test

Formal Assessment; a classic test of verbal long-term memory

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Global amnesia

amnesia for information presented in all sensory modalities

13

Mirror-drawing test

the participants can not look at his arm and must look at a mirror and trace the object... the person is suppose to improve after every try

14

Incomplete-Pictures Test

a nonsensorimotor test of memory that employs five sets of fragmented drawings - each set contains drawing of the same object

15

Pavlovian Conditioning

Being condition to a stimulus by repetitive traininh

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Remote Memory

memory for experiences in the distant past -

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Memory consolidation

the translation of short-term memories into long-term memories

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explicit memories (Declarative memories)

conscious long-term memories

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Implicit Memories

long-term memories demonstrated by improved test performance without conscious awareness

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Medial temporal amnesia

neuropsychological patients with a profile of mnemonic deficits, but with preserved intellectual functioning, and with evidence of medial temporal lobe damage

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Repetition priming test

test that asses implicit memory

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Semantic memories

explicit memories for general facts or information

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Episodic memories

explicit memories for the particular events (i.e., episodes) of one's life

24

Global cerebral Ischemia

experienced an interruption of blood supply to their entire brain

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Transient global amnesia

sudden onset severe anterograde amnesia and moderate retrograde amnesia for explicit episodic memories that is transient--typically lasting only between 4 to 6 hours

26

Korsakoff's syndrome

is a disorder of memory common in people who have consumed large amounts of alcohol; the disorder is largely attributed to the brain damage associated with thiamine deficiency

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medial diencephalon

medial thalamus and the medial hypothalamus

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mediodorsal nuclei

A pair of medial diencephalic nuclei in the thalamus, damage to which is thought to be responsible for many of the memory deficits associated with Korsakoff's syndrome

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medial diencephalic amnesia

amnesia associated with damage to the medial diencephalon

30

Alzheimer Disease

the major cause of dementia in old age, characterized by neurofibrillary tangles, amyloid plaques, and neuron loss

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Dementia

a group of thinking and social symptoms that interfere with daily functioning

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basal forebrain

midline area located just above the hypothalamus

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posttraumatic amnesia PTA

Amnesia following a nonpenetrating blow to the head

34

concussion

temporary disturbance of consciousness produced by a nonpenetrating head injury

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coma

pathological state of unconsciousness

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Hebb's Theory

classical theory memory reconsolidation -- argued that memories of experiences are stored in the short term by neural activity reverberating in closed circuits

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reverberating

circulating

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electroconvulsive shock (ECS)

intense, brief, diffuse, seizure-inducing current that is administered to the brain through large electrodes attached to the scalp

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Standard Consolidation Theory

memories are temporarily stored in the hippocampus until they can be transferred to a more stable cortical storage system

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reconsolidation

each time memory is retrieved from long-term storage, it is temporarily held in labile (changeable or unstable)

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engram

change in the brain that stores a memory

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anisomycin

protein-synthesis inhibitor

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delayed nonmatching-to-sample test

A test in which the subject is presented with an unfamiliar sample object and then, after a delay, is presented with a choice between the sample object and a unfamiliar object, where the correct choice is the unfamiliar object

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medial temporal cortex

Cortex in the medial temporal lobe that lies adjacent to the hippocampus and amygdala

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aspiration

suction of large portions of the rhinal cortex in addition to the hippocampus... A lesion technique in which tissue is drawn off by suction through the fine tip of a glass pipette.

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Mumby box

An apparatus that is used in a rat version of the delayed nonmatching-to-sample test

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Morris water maze test

intact rats are placed at various locations in a circular pool of murky water rapidly learn to swim to a stationary platform hidden just below the surface

48

radial arm maze test

several arms radiate out from a central starting chamber, and the same few arms are baited with food each day

49

reference memory

memory for the general principle and skills that are required to perform a task

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working memory

memory for the general principle and skills that are required to perform a task

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place cells

neurons that develop place fields-- that is, that respond only when the subject is in a particular place in a familiar test environment

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entorhinal cortex

an area of the medial temporal cortex that is a major source of neural signals to the hippocampus

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Grid cells

are entorhinal neurons that each have an extensive array of evenly spaced place fields, producing a pattern reminiscent of graph paper

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Jennifer Aniston neurons

other medial temporal lobes neuron that respond to other individuals known to the patients or to known objects

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concept cells

Aniston Neuron repond to ideasor concepts rather than to particular

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inferetemporal cortex

cortex on the inferior temporal cortex, which has complex visual functions

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Prefrontal Cortex

the area of frontal cortex anterior to motor cortex

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cerebellum

thought to participate in the storage of memories of learned sensorimotor skills through its various neuroplastic mechanism

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striatum

thought to store memories for consistent relationships between stimuli and responses--the type of memories that develop incrementally over many trials

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habit formation

what is refer to striatum-based form of learning

61

Long-term potential

Bliss and Lomo show that there is a facilitation of synaptic transmission following high-frequency electrical stimulation applied to presynaptic neurons

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Hebb's postulate for learning

the co-occurrence of firing in presynaptic and postsynaptic cells is now recognized as the critical factor in LTP - assumption that co-occcurence is a physiological necessity for learning and memory

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induction, maintenance and expression

processes by which high frequency stimulation induce LTP(learning), the changes responsible for storing LTP(memory) and the changes that allow it to be expressed during the test (recall)

64

NMDA receptor

is a receptor for glutamate

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Glutamate

the main excitatory neurotransmitter of the brain

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dendritic spine

Tiny nodules of various shapes that are located on the surface of many dendrites and are the sites of most excitatory synapses in the mature mammalian brain

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transcription factors

intracellular proteins that bind to DNA and influence the operation of particular genes

68

Nitric Oxide

A soluble-gas neurotransmitter

69

Infantile amnesia

not remembering anything of the events of our infancy

70

Nootropics or Smart drugs

substances that are though to improve memory