Flashcards in Chapter13 Deck (84):
Glands that release chemicals into ducts that carry them to targets, mostly on the surface of the body.
Ductless glands that release chemicals called hormones directly into the circulatory system.
Chemicals released by the endocrine system directly into the circulatory system.
The testes and the ovaries.
The male gonads.
The female gonads.
The cell formed from the amalgamation of a sperm cell and an ovum.
The pair of chromosomes that determine an individual's sex: XX for a female and XY for a male.
Amino acid derivative hormones
Hormones that are synthesized in a few simple steps from amino acids.
3 classes of vertebrate hormones
Amino acid derivatives, peptides and proteins, and steroids.
Hormones that are short chains of amino acids.
Hormones that are long chains of amino acids.
Hormones that are synthesized from cholesterol.
The class of steroid hormones that includes testosterone.
The class of steroid hormones that are released in large amounts by ovaries.
The most common androgen.
The most common estrogen.
The class of steroid hormones that includes progesterone.
A progestin that prepares the uterus and breasts for pregnancy.
The outer layer of the adrenal glands, which releases glucocorticoids in response to stressors, as well as steroid hormones in small amounts.
The pituitary tropic hormone that stimulates the release of hormones from the gonads.
The part of the pituitary gland that contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons.
The structure connecting the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.
The part of the pituitary gland that releases tropic hormones. hypothalamic inhibiting and hypothalamic releasing hormones
The hormone-regulated cycle in women of follicle growth, egg releases, build-up of the uterus lining, and menstruation.
One of the two major peptide hormones of the posterior pituitary; it facilitates reabsorption of water by kidneys and is thus called antidiuretic hormone.
One of the two major peptide hormones of the posterior pituitary, which in females stimulates contractions of the uterus during labor and the ejection of milk during suckling.
Hypothalamic nuclei that play a role in eating and synthesize hormones released by the posterior pituitary.
Hypothalamic nuclei in which hormones of the posterior pituitary are synthesized.
Hypothalamopituitary portal system
The vascular network that carries hormones from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary.
Hypothalamic hormones that stimulate the release of hormones from he anterior pituitary.
Hypothalamic hormones that inhibit the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary.
The hypothalamic hormone that stimulates the release of thyrotropin from the anterior pituitary.
The anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the release of hormones from the thyroid gland.
The hypothalamic releasing hormone that controls the release of the two gonadotropic hormones form the anterior pituitary.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
The gonadotropic hormone that stimulates development of ovarian follicles.
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
The gonadotropic hormone that causes the developing ovum to be released from its follicle.
Pulsatile hormone release
The typical pattern of hormone release, which occurs in large surges several times a day.
A gene on the Y chromosome that triggers the release of Sry protein, which in turn stimulates the development of the testes.
A protein that causes the medulla of each primordial gonad into a testis.
The embryonic precursor of the male reproductive ducts.
The embryonic precursor of the female reproductive ducts.
The testicular hormone that causes the precursor of the female reproductive ducts to degenerate and the testes to descend.
The sac that holds the male testes outside of the body cavity.
The removal of the ovaries.
The removal of the testes.
The surgical removal of the gonads (testes or ovaries); castration.
Secondary sex characteristics
Body features, other that the reproductive organs, that distinguish men from women.
The anterior pituitary hormone that acts directly on bone and muscle tissue to produce the pubertal growth spurt.
The anterior pituitary hormone that triggers the release of gonadal and adrenal hormones from the adrenal cortices.
The adrenal androgen that triggers the growth of pubic and axillary hair in human females.
An enzyme that promotes the conversion of testosterone to estradiol.
The chemical process by which testosterone is converted to estradiol.
The hypothesis that the brain is masculinized by estradiol that is produced from perinatal testosterone through a process called aromatization.
A protein that is presented in the blood of many mammals during the perinatal period and that deactivates circulating estradiol by binding to it.
Enhances or produces male characteristics.
Suppresses or disrupts female characteristics.
The arched-backed, pump-up, tail-to-the-side posture of female rodent sexual receptivity, which serves to facilitate intromission.
Enhances or produces female characteristics.
Suppresses or disrupts male characteristics.
Insertion of the penis into the vagina.
Ejection of sperm.
Behaviors that solicits the sexual advances of members of the other sex.
Instances where a behavior (or a structure) comes in two distinctive classes (male or female) into which most individuals can be unambiguously assigned.
Androgenic insensitivity syndrome
The developmental disorder of genetic males in which a mutation to the androgen receptor gene renders the androgen receptors defective and causes the development of a female body.
A sexual developmental disorder in which high levels of adrenal androgens, resulting from congenital adrenal hyperplasia, masculinize the bodies of genetic females.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
A congenital deficiency in the release of cortisol from the adrenal cortex, which leads to the excessive release of adrenal androgens.
Accidental deconstruction of the penis.
Injections of a hormone whose natural release has been curtailed by the removal of the gland that normally releases it.
Unable to achieve penile erection.
The portion of the estrous cycle characterized by proceptivity, sexual receptivity, and fertility.
The cycle of sexual receptivity displayed by many female mammals.
Steroid drugs theater similar to testosterone and have a powerful anabolic (growth-promotic) effects.
Medical preoptic area
The area of the hypothalamus that includes the sexually dimorphic nuclei and that plays a key role in the control of male sexual behavior.
Sexually dimorphic nucleus
The nucleus in the medial pre optic area of rats that is larger in males than in females.
A hypothalamic nucleus that is thought to be involved in female sexual behavior.
Sexually attracted to members of the other sex.
Sexually attracted to the member of the same sex.
Sexually attracted to the members of both sexes.
The sex (male or female) that a person feels himself or herself to be.
Fraternal birth order effect
The finding that the probability of a man's being homosexual increases as a function of the number of older brothers he has.
Maternal immune hypothesis
The hypothesis that mothers become progressively more immune to some masculinizing hormones in their male fetuses; proposed to explain the fraternal birth order effect.