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Flashcards in Chapter13 Deck (84):
1

Exocrine glands

Glands that release chemicals into ducts that carry them to targets, mostly on the surface of the body.

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Endocrine glands

Ductless glands that release chemicals called hormones directly into the circulatory system.

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Hormones

Chemicals released by the endocrine system directly into the circulatory system.

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Gonads

The testes and the ovaries.

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Testes

The male gonads.

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Ovaries

The female gonads.

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Copulation

Sexual intercourse.

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Zygote

The cell formed from the amalgamation of a sperm cell and an ovum.

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Sex chromosomes

The pair of chromosomes that determine an individual's sex: XX for a female and XY for a male.

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Amino acid derivative hormones

Hormones that are synthesized in a few simple steps from amino acids.

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3 classes of vertebrate hormones

Amino acid derivatives, peptides and proteins, and steroids.

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Peptide hormones

Hormones that are short chains of amino acids.

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Protein hormones

Hormones that are long chains of amino acids.

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Steroid hormones

Hormones that are synthesized from cholesterol.

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Androgens

The class of steroid hormones that includes testosterone.

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Estrogens

The class of steroid hormones that are released in large amounts by ovaries.

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Testosterone

The most common androgen.

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Estradiol

The most common estrogen.

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Progestins

The class of steroid hormones that includes progesterone.

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Progesterone

A progestin that prepares the uterus and breasts for pregnancy.

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Adrenal cortex

The outer layer of the adrenal glands, which releases glucocorticoids in response to stressors, as well as steroid hormones in small amounts.

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Gonadotropin

The pituitary tropic hormone that stimulates the release of hormones from the gonads.

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Posterior pituitary

The part of the pituitary gland that contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons.

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Pituitary stalk

The structure connecting the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.

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Anterior pituitary

The part of the pituitary gland that releases tropic hormones. hypothalamic inhibiting and hypothalamic releasing hormones

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Menstrual cycle

The hormone-regulated cycle in women of follicle growth, egg releases, build-up of the uterus lining, and menstruation.

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Vasopressin

One of the two major peptide hormones of the posterior pituitary; it facilitates reabsorption of water by kidneys and is thus called antidiuretic hormone.

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Oxytocin

One of the two major peptide hormones of the posterior pituitary, which in females stimulates contractions of the uterus during labor and the ejection of milk during suckling.

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Paraventricular nuclei

Hypothalamic nuclei that play a role in eating and synthesize hormones released by the posterior pituitary.

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Supraoptic nuclei

Hypothalamic nuclei in which hormones of the posterior pituitary are synthesized.

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Hypothalamopituitary portal system

The vascular network that carries hormones from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary.

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Releasing hormones

Hypothalamic hormones that stimulate the release of hormones from he anterior pituitary.

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Release-inhibiting hormones

Hypothalamic hormones that inhibit the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary.

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Thyrotropin-releasing hormones

The hypothalamic hormone that stimulates the release of thyrotropin from the anterior pituitary.

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Thyrotropin

The anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the release of hormones from the thyroid gland.

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Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

The hypothalamic releasing hormone that controls the release of the two gonadotropic hormones form the anterior pituitary.

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Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

The gonadotropic hormone that stimulates development of ovarian follicles.

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Luteinizing hormone (LH)

The gonadotropic hormone that causes the developing ovum to be released from its follicle.

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Pulsatile hormone release

The typical pattern of hormone release, which occurs in large surges several times a day.

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Sry gene

A gene on the Y chromosome that triggers the release of Sry protein, which in turn stimulates the development of the testes.

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Sry protein

A protein that causes the medulla of each primordial gonad into a testis.

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Wolffian system

The embryonic precursor of the male reproductive ducts.

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Mullerian system

The embryonic precursor of the female reproductive ducts.

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Mullerian-inhibiting substance

The testicular hormone that causes the precursor of the female reproductive ducts to degenerate and the testes to descend.

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Scrotum

The sac that holds the male testes outside of the body cavity.

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Ovariectomy

The removal of the ovaries.

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Orchidectomy

The removal of the testes.

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Gonadectomy

The surgical removal of the gonads (testes or ovaries); castration.

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Secondary sex characteristics

Body features, other that the reproductive organs, that distinguish men from women.

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Growth hormone

The anterior pituitary hormone that acts directly on bone and muscle tissue to produce the pubertal growth spurt.

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Adrenocorticotropic hormone

The anterior pituitary hormone that triggers the release of gonadal and adrenal hormones from the adrenal cortices.

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Androstenedioine

The adrenal androgen that triggers the growth of pubic and axillary hair in human females.

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Aromatase

An enzyme that promotes the conversion of testosterone to estradiol.

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Aromatization

The chemical process by which testosterone is converted to estradiol.

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Aromatization hypothesis

The hypothesis that the brain is masculinized by estradiol that is produced from perinatal testosterone through a process called aromatization.

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Alpha fetoprotein

A protein that is presented in the blood of many mammals during the perinatal period and that deactivates circulating estradiol by binding to it.

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Masculinizes

Enhances or produces male characteristics.

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Defeminizes

Suppresses or disrupts female characteristics.

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Lordosis

The arched-backed, pump-up, tail-to-the-side posture of female rodent sexual receptivity, which serves to facilitate intromission.

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Feminizes

Enhances or produces female characteristics.

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Demasculinizes

Suppresses or disrupts male characteristics.

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Intromission

Insertion of the penis into the vagina.

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Ejaculation

Ejection of sperm.

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Proceptive behaviors

Behaviors that solicits the sexual advances of members of the other sex.

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Sexual dimorphisms

Instances where a behavior (or a structure) comes in two distinctive classes (male or female) into which most individuals can be unambiguously assigned.

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Androgenic insensitivity syndrome

The developmental disorder of genetic males in which a mutation to the androgen receptor gene renders the androgen receptors defective and causes the development of a female body.

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Adrenogenital syndrome

A sexual developmental disorder in which high levels of adrenal androgens, resulting from congenital adrenal hyperplasia, masculinize the bodies of genetic females.

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Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

A congenital deficiency in the release of cortisol from the adrenal cortex, which leads to the excessive release of adrenal androgens.

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Ablatio penis

Accidental deconstruction of the penis.

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Replacement injections

Injections of a hormone whose natural release has been curtailed by the removal of the gland that normally releases it.

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Impotent

Unable to achieve penile erection.

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Estrus

The portion of the estrous cycle characterized by proceptivity, sexual receptivity, and fertility.

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Estrous cycle

The cycle of sexual receptivity displayed by many female mammals.

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Anabolic steroids

Steroid drugs theater similar to testosterone and have a powerful anabolic (growth-promotic) effects.

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Medical preoptic area

The area of the hypothalamus that includes the sexually dimorphic nuclei and that plays a key role in the control of male sexual behavior.

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Sexually dimorphic nucleus

The nucleus in the medial pre optic area of rats that is larger in males than in females.

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Ventromedial nucleus

A hypothalamic nucleus that is thought to be involved in female sexual behavior.

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Heterosexual

Sexually attracted to members of the other sex.

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Homosexual

Sexually attracted to the member of the same sex.

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Bisexual

Sexually attracted to the members of both sexes.

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Sexual identity

The sex (male or female) that a person feels himself or herself to be.

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Fraternal birth order effect

The finding that the probability of a man's being homosexual increases as a function of the number of older brothers he has.

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Maternal immune hypothesis

The hypothesis that mothers become progressively more immune to some masculinizing hormones in their male fetuses; proposed to explain the fraternal birth order effect.

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Transsexualism

A disorder of sexual identity in which the individual believes that he or she is trapped in a body of the other sex.