Flashcards in chapter10 Deck (90):
A mass of cells that grows independently of the rest of the body.
Tumors that grow between the meninges.
Tumors that grow within their own membrane.
Tumors that are surgically removed with little risk to further growth in the body.
Tumors that grow diffusely through surrounding tissue.
Tumors that may continue to grow in the body even after attempted surgical removal.
Brain tumors that develop from glial cells.
Tumors that originate in one organ and spread to another.
Sudden-onset cerebrovascular disorders that cause brain damage.
The area of dysfunctional brain tissue around an infarct in which the degree of damage can vary.
Bleeding in the brain.
Pathological balloon like dilation that forms in the wall of the artery at a point in the elasticity of wall is defective
Aneurysm is present at birth or a result from an exposure to vascular poisons or infections.
Disruption of the blood supply to an area of the brain. 3 causes: thrombosis, embolism, and arteriosclerosis.
A plug called a thrombus is formed in blood flow at the site of its formation.
Similar to thrombosis. The thrombus being carried somewhere else in the vessel (flows from a large vein to a small vein) .
The walls of blood vessels thicken and the channel narrows usually as the result of fat deposits. The narrowing of the vessel can lead to complete blockage.
Excitatory neurotransmitter, plays a major roll in stroke induced brain damage.
NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors
Receptor involved in the acceptance of glutamate that causes the excitatory influx of calcium and sodium. Excitotoxicity
Closed head injuries that involve damage to the cerebral circulatory system. Damage produces internal hemorrhaging.
A localized collection of clotted blood in an organ or tissue.
Blow causes the brain to strike the inside of the skull on the other side of the head. Contusions occur mostly on the side of the brain opposite the side struck by a blow.
Caused by a blow to the head that causes confusion and temporary amnesia. The brain does not hit the skull.
Dementia in cerebral scarring observed in boxers and other individuals who experience repeated concussions.
General intellectual deterioration.
An invasion in the brain by micro organisms (brain infection) which causes inflamation of the brain. (2 kinds: bacterial infections and viral infections).
Bacteria infects the brain and leads to the formation of cerebral abscesses which are pockets of puss in the brain.
A main cause of bacterial infection that causes inflammation of the meninges.
A bacterial brain infection that are passed from infected to non infected individuals through contact with general sores. Usually goes dormant for several years before attack parts of the body and brain.
The syndrome of insanity and dementia that results from a syphilitic infection.
2 types: those that have a particular affinity for neural tissue and those that attack neural tissue but have no greater affinity for it than other tissues.
Usually transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal. It has a particular affinity for the nervous system.
Mumps and herpes
common viruses that can attack the nervous system but have no specific affinity for it.
Causes of disorder
chronic insanity produced by neurotoxin
Motor disorder primary symptoms are involuntary smacking, and sucking movements of the lips and puffing of the cheeks.
Produced by the patients own body
Plays a critical role in early development by eliminating extra neurons. Also plays a role in brain damage by activating apoptotic programs of self-destruction.
Passive cell death resulting from injury.
motor seizures often involve tremors, rigidity, and loss of both balance and consciousness.
Take place due to bad smell, specific thought, a vague feeling of familiarity, a hallucination, or a tightness of the chest.
seizure that does not involve the entire brain
Simple partial seizures
Partial seizures who symptoms are primary sensory or motor or both.
Complex partial seizures
Often restricted to the temporal lobes and those who experience them are often said to have temporal lobe epilepsy. During this event the patient engages in compulsive repetitive simple behaviors known as automatisms
Involves the entire brain. A discharge begins simultaneously in all parts of the brain.
Tonic-clonic seizures (GS)
primary symptom is loss of consciousness, loss of equilibrium, and a violent tonic-clonic convulsion
Shortage of oxygen supply to tissue. accompanies a tonic-clonic seizure and can cause brain damage.
Not associated with convulsions and behavior symptom is a disruption of consciousness associated with a sensation of on going behavior, a vacant look, and sometimes fluttering eyelids.
a movement disorder or middle and old age
the main area associated with parkinson's disease because of degeneration-the midbrain nucleus whose neurons project via the nigrostriatal pathway to the striatum of the basal ganglia
clumps of proteins in the surviving dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra
chemical form which the body synthesizes dopamine
Deep brain stimulation
treatment in which low intensity electrical stimulation is continually applied to an area of the brain through a sterotaxically implanted electrode
a nucleus beneath the thalamus connected to the basal ganglia in which Parkinson's patients receiving treatment through deep brain stimulation are subject to a chronic bilateral electrical stimulation.
progressive motor disorder, associated with severe dementia
a single mutated dominant gene
the protein that is coded
progressive disease that attacks the myelin of axons in the CNS
a disorder in which the body immune system attacks part of the body as if it was a foreign substance
experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
an animal model of multiple sclerosis
the loss of motor coordination
is the study of various factors such as diet, geographic location, age, sex, and race that influence the distribution of a disease in a general population.
treatment for multiple sclerosis
the most common form of dementia that is terminal and early stages:selective decline in memory, deficits in attention, and personality changes. intermediate stages: confusion, irritability, anxiety, and deterioration of speech. advance stages: deterioration to the point that event requiring the simplest responses are difficult
threadlike tangles of protein in the neural cytoplasm
clumps of scar tissue. Compose of degenerating neurons and of proteins
the result of microhemorrhages
it proposes that amyloid plaques are the primary symptoms of the disorder and causes all other symptoms (Alzheimers)
progressive development and intessifacation of convulsions elicited by a series of periodic brain stimulation (epilepsy model)
the development or genesis of epilepsy
Animals in which gene of another species has been introduced
neuron deterioration and death
Degeneration of the distal segment
the segment of a cut axon between the cut and the synaptic terminal
a degenaration of the proximal segment
the segment of a cut axon between the cut and the cell body
degeneration's spread from damage neurons to neurons that are link to them by synapses
anterograde transneuronal degeneration
spreads from damage neuron to the neuron to which they synapse
retrograde transneuronal degeneration
spreads from damage neurons to the neurons that synapse on them
the regrowth of damage neurons
myelinate the PNS axons
myelinates the CNS axons
axons branches grow out from adjacent healthy axons and synapse at the site vacated by the degenerated axon
roughly equivalent to education and intelligence, thought to play a role in the improvements observed after brain damage that do not result in the recovery of brain function.
adrenal medulla autotransplantation
transplanting a patients own adrenal medulla cell into her or his striatum usually for the treatment of Parkinson
tie-down the functioning arm for two weeks while the affected arm received intensive training
design to promote the cognitive and physical activity