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Flashcards in chapter10 Deck (90):
1

Tumor (neoplasm)

A mass of cells that grows independently of the rest of the body.

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Meningiomas

Tumors that grow between the meninges.

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Encapsulated tumors

Tumors that grow within their own membrane.

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Benign tumors

Tumors that are surgically removed with little risk to further growth in the body.

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Infiltrating tumors

Tumors that grow diffusely through surrounding tissue.

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Malignant tumors

Tumors that may continue to grow in the body even after attempted surgical removal.

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Gliomas

Brain tumors that develop from glial cells.

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Metastatic tumors

Tumors that originate in one organ and spread to another.

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Strokes

Sudden-onset cerebrovascular disorders that cause brain damage.

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Penumbra

The area of dysfunctional brain tissue around an infarct in which the degree of damage can vary.

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Cerebral hemorrhage

Bleeding in the brain.

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Aneurysm

Pathological balloon like dilation that forms in the wall of the artery at a point in the elasticity of wall is defective

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Congenital

Aneurysm is present at birth or a result from an exposure to vascular poisons or infections.

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Cerebral ischema

Disruption of the blood supply to an area of the brain. 3 causes: thrombosis, embolism, and arteriosclerosis.

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Thrombosis

A plug called a thrombus is formed in blood flow at the site of its formation.

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Embolism

Similar to thrombosis. The thrombus being carried somewhere else in the vessel (flows from a large vein to a small vein) .

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Arteriosclerosis

The walls of blood vessels thicken and the channel narrows usually as the result of fat deposits. The narrowing of the vessel can lead to complete blockage.

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Glutamate

Excitatory neurotransmitter, plays a major roll in stroke induced brain damage.

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NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors

Receptor involved in the acceptance of glutamate that causes the excitatory influx of calcium and sodium. Excitotoxicity

20

Contusions

Closed head injuries that involve damage to the cerebral circulatory system. Damage produces internal hemorrhaging.

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Hematoma

A localized collection of clotted blood in an organ or tissue.

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Contrecoup injuries

Blow causes the brain to strike the inside of the skull on the other side of the head. Contusions occur mostly on the side of the brain opposite the side struck by a blow.

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Concussion

Caused by a blow to the head that causes confusion and temporary amnesia. The brain does not hit the skull.

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Punch-drunk syndrome

Dementia in cerebral scarring observed in boxers and other individuals who experience repeated concussions.

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Dementia

General intellectual deterioration.

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Encephalitis

An invasion in the brain by micro organisms (brain infection) which causes inflamation of the brain. (2 kinds: bacterial infections and viral infections).

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Bacterial infection

Bacteria infects the brain and leads to the formation of cerebral abscesses which are pockets of puss in the brain.

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Meningitis

A main cause of bacterial infection that causes inflammation of the meninges.

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Syphilis

A bacterial brain infection that are passed from infected to non infected individuals through contact with general sores. Usually goes dormant for several years before attack parts of the body and brain.

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General paresis

The syndrome of insanity and dementia that results from a syphilitic infection.

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Viral infections

2 types: those that have a particular affinity for neural tissue and those that attack neural tissue but have no greater affinity for it than other tissues.

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Rabies

Usually transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal. It has a particular affinity for the nervous system.

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Mumps and herpes

common viruses that can attack the nervous system but have no specific affinity for it.

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Etiology

Causes of disorder

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Toxic psychosis

chronic insanity produced by neurotoxin

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Tardive dyskinesia

Motor disorder primary symptoms are involuntary smacking, and sucking movements of the lips and puffing of the cheeks.

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Endogenous

Produced by the patients own body

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Apoptosis

Plays a critical role in early development by eliminating extra neurons. Also plays a role in brain damage by activating apoptotic programs of self-destruction.

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Necrosis

Passive cell death resulting from injury.

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Epilepsy

epileptic seizures

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Convulsions

motor seizures often involve tremors, rigidity, and loss of both balance and consciousness.

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Epileptic auras

Take place due to bad smell, specific thought, a vague feeling of familiarity, a hallucination, or a tightness of the chest.

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Partial seizures

seizure that does not involve the entire brain

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Simple partial seizures

Partial seizures who symptoms are primary sensory or motor or both.

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Complex partial seizures

Often restricted to the temporal lobes and those who experience them are often said to have temporal lobe epilepsy. During this event the patient engages in compulsive repetitive simple behaviors known as automatisms

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Generalized seizures

Involves the entire brain. A discharge begins simultaneously in all parts of the brain.

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Tonic-clonic seizures (GS)

primary symptom is loss of consciousness, loss of equilibrium, and a violent tonic-clonic convulsion

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Hypoxia

Shortage of oxygen supply to tissue. accompanies a tonic-clonic seizure and can cause brain damage.

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Absent seizures

Not associated with convulsions and behavior symptom is a disruption of consciousness associated with a sensation of on going behavior, a vacant look, and sometimes fluttering eyelids.

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Parkinson's disease

a movement disorder or middle and old age

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substantia nigra

the main area associated with parkinson's disease because of degeneration-the midbrain nucleus whose neurons project via the nigrostriatal pathway to the striatum of the basal ganglia

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Lewy bodies

clumps of proteins in the surviving dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra

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L-dopa

chemical form which the body synthesizes dopamine

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Deep brain stimulation

treatment in which low intensity electrical stimulation is continually applied to an area of the brain through a sterotaxically implanted electrode

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subthalamic nucleus

a nucleus beneath the thalamus connected to the basal ganglia in which Parkinson's patients receiving treatment through deep brain stimulation are subject to a chronic bilateral electrical stimulation.

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Huntington's disease

progressive motor disorder, associated with severe dementia

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Huntington

a single mutated dominant gene

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Huntington protein

the protein that is coded

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Multiple sclerosis

progressive disease that attacks the myelin of axons in the CNS

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autoimmune disorder

a disorder in which the body immune system attacks part of the body as if it was a foreign substance

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experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

an animal model of multiple sclerosis

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ataxia

the loss of motor coordination

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epidemiology

is the study of various factors such as diet, geographic location, age, sex, and race that influence the distribution of a disease in a general population.

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immunomodulatory drugs

treatment for multiple sclerosis

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Alzhemier's disease

the most common form of dementia that is terminal and early stages:selective decline in memory, deficits in attention, and personality changes. intermediate stages: confusion, irritability, anxiety, and deterioration of speech. advance stages: deterioration to the point that event requiring the simplest responses are difficult

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neurofibrillary tangles

threadlike tangles of protein in the neural cytoplasm

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amyloid

clumps of scar tissue. Compose of degenerating neurons and of proteins

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microbleeds

the result of microhemorrhages

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amyloid hypothesis

it proposes that amyloid plaques are the primary symptoms of the disorder and causes all other symptoms (Alzheimers)

70

kindling phenomena

progressive development and intessifacation of convulsions elicited by a series of periodic brain stimulation (epilepsy model)

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epileptogenesis

the development or genesis of epilepsy

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transgenic

Animals in which gene of another species has been introduced

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neurodegenaration

neuron deterioration and death

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anterograde degeneration

Degeneration of the distal segment

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distal segment

the segment of a cut axon between the cut and the synaptic terminal

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retrograde degeneration

a degenaration of the proximal segment

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proximal segment

the segment of a cut axon between the cut and the cell body

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transneuronal degeneration

degeneration's spread from damage neurons to neurons that are link to them by synapses

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anterograde transneuronal degeneration

spreads from damage neuron to the neuron to which they synapse

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retrograde transneuronal degeneration

spreads from damage neurons to the neurons that synapse on them

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neural regenaration

the regrowth of damage neurons

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schwann cells

myelinate the PNS axons

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oligodendroglia

myelinates the CNS axons

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collateral sprouting

axons branches grow out from adjacent healthy axons and synapse at the site vacated by the degenerated axon

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cerebral edema

brain swelling

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cognitive reserve

roughly equivalent to education and intelligence, thought to play a role in the improvements observed after brain damage that do not result in the recovery of brain function.

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adrenal medulla autotransplantation

transplanting a patients own adrenal medulla cell into her or his striatum usually for the treatment of Parkinson

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constraint-induced therapy

tie-down the functioning arm for two weeks while the affected arm received intensive training

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enriched environments

design to promote the cognitive and physical activity

90

phantom limb

when amputee continue to experience the limb that has been amputated