Chapter 5 - Research Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Research Deck (111):
1

Contrast X-ray techniques

use to visualize the brain -How is done? by injecting into one compartment of the body a substance that absorbs X-rays either less than or more than the surrounding tissues

2

Cerebral angiography

uses the infusion of a radio-opaque dye into a cerebral artery to visualize the cerebral circulatory system during X-ray photography

3

Computed tomography

is a computer- assisted X-ray procedure that can be used to visualize the brain and other internal structures of the living body

4

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

procedure in which high-resolution images are constructed from the measurement of waves that hydrogen atoms emit when activated by a radio-frequency waves in a magnetic field

5

Spatial resolution

ability to detect and represent differences in spatial location

6

positron emission tomography (PET)

first brain-imaging technique to provide images of brain activity rather than images of brain structure

7

2-deoxyglucose

provides color coding for PET - acts similar to glucose since is rapidly taken up by active cells- but instead of being consume its broken down

8

carotid artery

an artery of the neck that feeds the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere

9

ligands

ions or molecules that bind to other molecules during investigation

10

Functional MRI

produces images representing the increase in oxygen flow in the blood to actives areas of the brain

11

BOLD signal

signal recorded by fMRI - blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal

12

temporal resolution

ability of a recording technique to detect differences in time (i.e. pinpoint when an event occurred)

13

Diffusion tensor imaging

a method of identifying those pathways along which water molecules rapidly diffuse ... provides image of major tracts

14

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

technique that can turn off an area of the cortex by creating a magnetic field under a coil positioned next to the skull

15

psychological recording methods

methods of recording physiological activity from the surface of the human body

16

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

is a measure of the gross electrical activity of the brain and is recorded through a large electrode by a device called an electroencephalograph (EEG machine)

17

electroencephalography

technique use to measure the gross electrical activity of the brain

18

alpha waves

are regular, 8-12-per second, high amplitude waves that are associated with relaxed wakefulness

19

event-related potentials

EEG waves that accompany certain psychological events

20

Sensory evoked potential

change in the cortical EEG signal elicited by the momentary presentation of a sensory stimulus

21

Component of a sensory stimulus

response to the stimulus & ongoing background EEG activity (noise)

22

Signal averaging

method used to reduce the noise of the background EEG

23

Average evoked potentials (AEPs)

analysis that focuses on the various waves in the averaged signal

24

P wave

positive waves that are measure in milliseconds and are recorded after a momentary stimulus that have meaning for the subject

25

far-field potentials

EEG signals recorded in attenuated form at the scalp b/c they originate far away- for example in the brain stem

26

magnetoencephalography (MEG)

measures changes in magnetic fields on the surface of the scalp that are produced by changes in underlying patterns of neural activity

27

Electromyography

usual procedure for measuring muscle tension

28

electromyogram (EMG)

record from electromyography measurement .... usually recorded between two electrodes taped to the surface of the skin over the muscle of interest

29

electrooculography

electrophysiological technique for recording eye movements .... based on the fact that a steady potential difference exits between the front (positive) and back (negative)

30

electrooculogram (EOG)

resulting record of electrooculography

31

electrodermal activity

conduction of electricity in the skin

32

Skin conductance level (SCL)

steady level of skin conductance associated with a particular situation

33

Skin conductance response (SCR)

the transient change in skin conductance associated with a brief experience

34

cardiovascular system

two parts: the blood vessels and the heart... is responsible for distributing oxygen and nutrients to tissues of the body.... removing metabolic wastes and transmitting chemical messages

35

electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

records the electrical signal associated with each heartbeat through electrodes place on chest

36

Systole

measurement of the peak pressure during the periods of heart contraction

37

Diastoles

measurement of the minimum pressure during the periods of relaxation

38

Hypertension

A chronic blood pressure as a serious health hazard

39

sphygmomanometer

device compose of hollow cuff, and rubber bulb to inflate and a pressure gauge for measuring the pressure in the cuff -- used to measure blood pressure

40

Plethysmography

refers to various technique for measuring changes in the volume of blood in a particular part of the body

41

stereotaxic surgery

means by which experimental devices are precisely positioned in the depths of the brain

42

Stereotaxic atlas

used to locate brain structures in much the same way that a geographic atlas is used to locate geographic

43

bregma

point on the top of the skull where two of the major sutures intersect

44

stereotaxic instrument

has two parts: head holder- firmly holds the subject's brain in the prescribed position and orientation
electrode holder: holds the device to be inserted

45

Aspiration Lesions

lesion made to an area of cortical tissue that is accessible to the eyes and instruments of the surgeon

46

Radio-Frequency Lesions

small subcortical lesions are commonly made passing radio-frequency current through the target tissue from the tip of a stereotaxically positioned electrode

47

Knife cuts

sectioning (cutting) is used to eliminate conduction in a nerve or tract

48

Reversible Lesions

useful alternatives to destructive lesions... method for temporarily eliminating the activity in a particular area of the brain while test are being conducted

49

Bilateral lesion

lesions involving both sides of the brain

50

unilateral lesions

lesions restricted to one half of the brain

51

Intracellular unit recording

provides moment-by-moment record of the graded fluctuations in one neuron's membrane potential

52

Extracellular unit recording

provides a record of the firing of a neuron but no information about the neuron's membrane potential

53

Multiple-unit Recording

electrode tip is much larger than that of a microelectrode; thus it picks up signals from many neurons

54

Invasive EEG Recording

labaratory animals, EEG signals are recorded through large implanted electrodes rather than through scalp electrodes

55

Cannula

fine hollow tube that is stereotaxically implanted in the brain which is use to admintered drug in the brain

56

Intragastrically

Drugs are injected to the stomach thru a tube

57

intraperitoneally

drugs are injected hypodermically into the peritoneal cavity of the abdomen

58

intramuscularly

drugs are injected into a large muscle

59

subcutaneously

drugs are injected into fatty tissues beneath the skin

60

intravenously

drugs are injected into large surface vein

61

neurotoxins

neural poison that have certain affinity for certain components of the nervous system ...sometime is a method used for lesions--- Kainic acid & ibotenic acid are types of neurotoxins

62

2-Deoxyglucose Technique

test situation in which engages the activity of interest....the subject metabolizes the energy then is killed and the brain is removed and sliced

63

autoradiography

done after 2-Deoxyglucose technique, slices are coated with a photographic emulsion, stored in the dark for a few days and then develop into "films"

64

cerebral dialysis

method for measuring the extracellular concentration of a specific neurochemicals in behaving animals -- most other techniques for measuring neurochemicals require that the subjects be killed so that the tissue can be extracted

65

chromatograph

device for measuring the chemical constituents of liquid gases

66

Immune reaction

foreign protein (antigen) is injected into an animals body , the animal creates antibodies that bind to it and help the body remove or destroy it

67

Immunocytochemistry

procedure for locating particular neuroproteins in the brain by labeling their antibodies with dye or radioactive element and then exposing slices of brain tissues to the labeled antibodies

68

in situ Hybridization

tecnique for locating peptides and other proteins in the brain

69

Gene Knockout Gene

procedures for creating organism that lack a particular gene under investigation

70

Gene replacement technique

replacing one gene with another

71

Transgenic mice

mice containing the genetic material of another species

72

Green fluorescent protein (GFP)

is a protein that exhibits bright green fluorence when exposed to blue light

73

Brainbow

neuroanatomical technique that involves inserting various mutuations of the green fluorescent protein gene into neural tissue so that different neurons fluorence in different color

74

Wechsler Adult Intellingence Scale

provide the patient's IQ .... experience neuropsychologist can draw inferences of the patients dysfunctions

75

digit span

identifies the longest sequence of random digits that a person can repeat correctly 50% of the time (digit span of 7 is the most common)

76

token test

used for screening for a language related deficit

77

sodium amytal test

involves injecting the anesthic sodium amytal into either the left or right carotid artery in the neck ...invansive procedure that affects language

78

dichotic listening test

sequences of spoken digits are presented to subjects though stereo headphones .. subjects are to listen and respond back by stating digits heard

79

anterograde

affects the retention of things learned after the damage

80

retrograde

affects the retention of things learned before the damage

81

repetition priming effect

proven instrumental in the assessment and the study of amnesic patients displaying severe deficits in explicit memory with no deficit at all in implicit memory

82

phonology

rules governing the sounds of language

83

syntax

grammar of the language

84

semantic

meaning of the language

85

dyslexic

those with reading problems

86

Wisconsin card sorting test

neuropsychological test that evaluates a patient's ability to remember that previously learned rules of behavior are no longer effective and to learn to respond to new rules

87

constituent cognitive processes

first assumption of cognitive neuroscience .... that each complex cognitive process results from the combined activity of simple cognitive processes
second assumption is that each constituent cognitive process is mediated by neural activity in a particular area of the brain

88

paired-image subtraction technique

The use of PET or fMRI to locate constituent cognitive processes in the brain by producing an image of the difference in brain activity associated with two cognitive tasks that differ in terms of a s single constituent cognitive process

89

default mode

the pattern of brain activity that is associated with relaxed wakefulness, when an individual is not focused on the external world

90

default mode network

network of brain structures that tends to be active when the brain is in default mode

91

species-common behaviors

behaviors that are displayed in the same manner by virtually all like members of a species

92

open-field test

the subject is placed in a large, barren chamber, and its activity is recorded

93

thigmotaxic

characterized of fearful rats .... rats rarely venture away from the walls of the test chamber and rarely engage in such activities as rearing and grooming

94

colony-intruder paradigm

A paradigm for the study of aggressive and defensive behaviors in male rats; a small male intruder rat is placed with a dominant rat in the dominant rat internal environment ( the aggressive responses of the dominant rat and the defenses responses of the intruder rat are study)

95

Elevated plus maze

four-armed, plus-sign-shaped maze typically mounted 50 centimeters above the floor, is a test of defensiveness commonly used to study in rats anxiolytic effects of drugs

96

lordosis

when female is receptive she sticks her hindquarters in the air, she bends her back in a U, and deflects her tail to the side

97

intromission

the male inserts his penis into the female's vagina

98

ejaculates

ejects his sperm

99

lordosis quotient

proportion of mounts that elicit lordosis

100

Pavolian conditioning paradigm

experimenter pairs an initially neutral stimulus known as "CS" with an "US".... through the process later the CS obtains the ability to produce the US alone without the need of US

101

Operant conditioning paradigm

rate at which a particular voluntary response such as a lever press is emitted; increase by reinforcement or decreased by punishment

102

self-stimulation paradigm

one of the most widely used operant conditions paradigm in biopsychology.... animals press a lever to deliver electrical stimulation to particular sites in their own brain

103

pleasure center

structures in the brain that supports self stimulation

104

conditioned taste aversion

the avoidance response that develops to taste of food consumption has been followed by illness

105

emetic

a nausea inducing drug

106

neophobic

afraid of new things

107

temporal contiguity

the view that animal conditioning is always a gradual step-by-step process

108

Principle of equipotentiality

the view that conditioning proceeds is basically the same manner regardless of the particular stimuli and responses under investigation

109

radial arm maze

an array of arms- usually eight or more- radiating from a central starting area... at the end of each arm is a food cup, which may or may not be baited, depending on the purpose of the experiment

110

Morris water maze

rats are placed in a circular, featureless pool of cool milky water, in which they must swim until they discover the escape platform which is invisible just beneath the surface of the water

111

conditioned defensive burying

rats receive a single aversive stimulus from an object mounted on the wall of the chamber just above the floor