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Flashcards in Chapter17 Deck (73):
1

Principle of antithesis

opposite messages often signaled by opposite movements and postures. Aggression and fear

2

james-lange theory

First physiological theory of emotion. Emotion-inducing sensory stimuli are received and interpreted by the cortex, which triggers changes in the visceral organs via the autonomic nervous system and the skeletal muscles via the somatic nervous system.
Ex. Perception of bear creating physiological reactions leading to feeling of fear.

3

Cannon-bard theory

emotional stimuli have two independent excitatory effects: they excite both the feelings of emotion and the expression of an emotion in the autonomic and somatic nervous systems.
ex. perception of the bear leads to both the feeling of fear and physiological reactions.

4

decorticate

cortex has been removed

5

Sham rage

exaggerated, poorly directed aggressive responses because of decorticate

6

limbic system

a collection of interconnected nuclei and tracts that borders the thalamus and is widely assumed to play a role in emotion

7

syndrome

a pattern of behavior

8

kluver-bucy syndrome

the consumption of almost anything that is edible, increased sexual activity often directed at inappropriate objects, a tendency to repeatedly investigate familiar objects with the mouth, and a lack of fear (anterior temporal lobes removed)

9

amygdala

a structure that plays a major role in research on emotion

10

polygraph

method of interrogation that employs autonomic nervous system indexes of emotion to infer the truthfulness of a person's responses

11

control-question technique

physiological responses to the target question is compared to the physiological responses to control questions whose answers are known

12

guilty-knowledge technique

a lie-detection method in which the polygraphed records autonomic nervous system responses to a list of control and crime-related information known only to the guilty person and the examiner

13

primary facial expressions

surprise, anger, sadness, disgust, fear, and happiness

14

facial feedback hypothesis

facial expressions influence our emotional experience

15

microexpressions

brief facial expressions

16

orbicularis oculi

facial muscle encircling the eye and pulls the skin from the check and forehead toward the eyeball. contracted during genuine smiles

17

zygomaticus major

facial muscle which pulls the lip corners up .... can be done voluntary

18

fear

emotional reaction to threat. motivation force of defensive behaviors

19

defensive behaviors

behaviors whose primary function is to protect the organism from threat or harm

20

aggressive behaviors

behaviors whose primary function is to threaten or harm

21

alpha male

dominant male

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topography

form--- researchers assumption of rat aggressive and defensive behaviors

23

target-site concept

the idea that aggressive and defensive behaviors of an animal are often designed to attack specific sites on the body of another animal while protecting specific sites on its own

24

fear conditioning

establishment of fear in response to a previously neutral stimulus by presenting it several times before delivery of an aversive stimulus

25

contextual fear conditioning

process by which contexts come to elicit fear through their association with fear inducing stimuli

26

hippocampus

plays a role in memory for spatial location

27

lateral nucleus of the amygdala

involved in the acquisition, storage, and expression of conditioned fear

28

prefrontal cortex

acts on the lateral nucleus of the amygdala to suppress conditioned fear

29

central nucleus of the amygdala

control defensive behaviors

30

mirror-like system

basis for human empathy

31

urbach-weithe disease

genetic disorder that often results in calcification of the amygdala and surrounding anterior medial temporal lobe structures in both hemispheres

32

calcification

hardening by conversion to calcium carbonate, the main component of bone

33

suppression paradigms

directed to inhibit emotional reactions to unpleasant films or pictures

34

reappraisal paradigms

instructed to reinterpret a picture to change their emotional reaction to it

35

right-hemisphere model

right hemisphere is specialized for all aspects of emotional processing, perception, expression, and experience of emotion

36

valence model

right-hemisphere is specialized for processing negative emotion and the left hemisphere is specialized for processing positive emotion

37

stress

a cluster of physiological changes when exposed to harm or threat

38

stressors

experiences that induce the stress response

39

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

hormone released from the anterior pituitary during stressors

40

glucocorticoids

release triggered by ACTH and produce many components of the stress response

41

adrenal cortex

where glucocorticoids are released in times of stress

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adrenal medulla

released increased amounts of epinephrine and norepinephrine as a stress response

43

cytokines

a group of peptide hormones that are released by many cells and participate in a variety of physiological and immunological responses

44

conspecifics

members of the same species

45

subordination stress

when conspecific threat becomes an enduring life feature daily life

46

bullying

chronic social that that induces subordination stress in the members of many species

47

psychosomatic disorders

medical disordes in which psychological factors play a casual role

48

gastric ulcers

painful lesions to the lining of the stomach and duodenum. can be life-thretening in extreme cases

49

psychoneuroimmunology

the study of interactions among psychological factors, the nervous system, and the immune system

50

immune system

system that protects the body against infectious micro-organisms. innate immune system and adaptive immune system.

51

innate immune system

first component of the immune system to react

52

pathogens

disease-causeing agents

53

toll-like receptors

receptors found the the cell membrane of many cells of the innate immune system; trigger phagocytosis and inflammatory responses

54

inflammation

swelling

55

leukocytes

white blood cells

56

phagocytes

cells that engulf and destroy pathogens

57

phagocytosis

destruction of pathogens by phagocytes

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adaptive immune system

the division of the immune system that mounts targeted attacks on foreign pathogens by binding to antigens in their cell body

59

lymphocytes

specialized leukocytes produced in bon marrow and the thalamus gland and are stored in the lymphatic system until they are activated

60

cell-mediated immunity

the immune reaction by which T cells destroy invading micro-organisms

61

T cells

T lymphocytes that bind to foreign micro-organisms and cells that contain them and, in doing so, destroy them

62

antibody-mediated immunity

the immune reaction by which B cells destroy invading micro-organisms

63

B cells

B lymphocytes that manufacture antibodies against antigens they encounter

64

antibodies

lethal receptor molecules. they bind to foreign antigens and destroy or deactivate the micro organisms that possess them

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prophylactic

preventive

66

vaccination

administering a weakened form of a virus so that if the virus later invades, the adaptive immune system is prepared to act against it

67

immunization

creating immunity through vaccination

68

spandrel

a nonadaptive by-product of an adaptive evolutionary change

69

distress

stress that disrupts health or other aspects of functioning

70

eustress

stress that improves health or other aspects of functioning

71

epigenetic

"not of the genes" non genetic means by which traits are passed from parents to offspring

72

corticosterone

a major glucocorticoid

73

adrenalectomy

surgical removal of the adrenal gland