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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Deck (46):
1

Pharmacological

Pertaining to the scientific study of drugs.

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Psychoactive drugs

Drugs that influence subjective experience and behavior by acting on the nervous system.

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Drug metabolism

The conversion of a drug from its active form to a nonactive form.

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Drug tolerance

A state of decreased sensitivity to a drug effect that develops as the result of exposure to the drug.

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Cross tolerance

Tolerance the the effects of one drug that develops as a result of exposure to another drug that acts by the same mechanism.

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Drug sensitization

An increase in the sensitivity to a drug effect that develops as a result of exposure to the drug.

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Metabolic tolerance

Tolerance that results form the reduction in the amount of a drug getting to its sites of action.

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Functional tolerance

Tolerance resulting from a reduction in the reactivity of the nervous system (or other cites of action) to a drug.

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Withdrawal syndrome

The illness brought on by the elimination from the body of a drug on which the person is physically dependent on.

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Physically dependent

Being in a state in which discontinuation of drug taking with induce withdrawal reactions.

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Drug addicts

Those habitual drug users who continue to use a drug despite its adverse effects on their health and social life, and despite their repeated efforts to stop using it.

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Contingent drug tolerance

Drug tolerance that develops as a reaction to the experience of the effects of drugs rather than to drug exposure alone.

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Before-and-after design

The experimental design used to demonstrate contingent drug tolerance; the experimental group receives the drug before each of a series of behavioral tests and the control group receives the drug after each test.

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Conditioned compensatory responses

Physiological responses opposite to the effects of a drug that are thought to be elicited by stimuli that are regularly associated with experiencing the drug effects.

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Exteroceptive stimuli

Stimuli that arise from outside the body.

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Interoceptive stimuli

Stimuli that arise from inside the body.

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Nicotine

The major psychoactive ingredient in tobacco.

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Drug craving

An affective state in which there is a strong desire for the drug.

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Smoker's syndrome

The chest pain, labored breathing, wheezing, coughing, and heightened susceptibility to infections of the respiratory tract commonly observed in tobacco smokers.

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Buerger's disease

A condition in which the blood vessels, especially those suppling the legs, are constricted whenever nicotine enter the bloodstream, the ultimate result being gangrene and amputation

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Teratogen

A drug or other chemical that causes birth defects.

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Depressant

A drug that depresses neural activity.

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Delirium tremens (DTs)

The phase of alcohol withdrawal syndrome characterized by hallucinations, delusions, agitation, confusion, hyperthermia, and tachycardia.

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Korsakoff's syndrome

A neurophysiological disorder that is common in alcoholics and whose primary symptom is severe memory loss.

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Cirrhosis

Scarring, typically of the liver.

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Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

A syndrome produced by prenatal exposure to alcohol and characterized by brain damage, mental retardation, poor coordination, poor muscle tone, low birth rate, retarded growth, and/or physical deformity.

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Cannabis sativa

The common hemp plant, which is the source of marijuana.

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THC

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychoactive constituent of marijuana.

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Hashish

Dark corklike material extracted from the resin on the leaves and flowers of Cannabis sativa.

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Narcotic

A legal category of drugs, mostly opiates.

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Anandamide

The first endogenous endocannabinoid to be discovered and characterized.

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Stimulants

Drugs that produce general increases in neural and behavioral activity.

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Cocaine

A potent catecholamine agonist and stimulant that is highly addictive.

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Crack

A potent, cheap, smokable form of cocaine.

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Cocaine sprees

Binges of cocaine use.

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Cocaine psychosis

Psychotic behavior observed during a cocaine spree, similar in many respects to paranoid schizophrenia.

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Amphetamine

A stimulant drug whose effects are similar to those of cocaine.

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Empathogens

Psychoactive drugs that produce feelings of empathy.

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Dopamine transporters

Molecules in the presynaptic membrane of dopaminergic neurons that attract dopamine molecules in the synaptic cleft and deposit them back inside the neuron.

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Opium

The sap that exudes from the seed pods of the opium poppy.

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Morphine

The major psychoactive ingredient of opium.

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Codeine

A relatively weak psychoactive ingredient of opium.

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Opiates

Morphine, codeine, heroin, and other chemicals with similar structures of effects.

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Analgesics

Drugs that reduce pain.

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Harrison Narcotics Act

The act, passed in 1914, that made it illegal to sell or use opium, morphine, or cocaine in the United States.

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Heroin

A powerful semisynthetic opiate.