Chapter18 Flashcards Preview

BioPsych > Chapter18 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter18 Deck (83):
1

psychiatric disorders

disorders of psychological function sufficiently severe to require treatment

2

positive symptoms

symptoms that seem to represent an excess of normal function. delusions, hallucinations, inappropriate affect, incoherent speech or thought, odd behavior.

3

negative symptoms

symptoms that seem to represent a reduction or less of normal function. affective flattering, allege, abolition, anhedonia, catatonia

4

hallucinations

imaginary voices making critical comments or telling patients what to do

5

inappropriate affect

failure to react with the appropriate emotion to positive or negative events

6

incoherent thought or speech

illogical thinking, echolalia, peculiar associations among ideas, belief in supernatural forces

7

odd behavior

difficulty performing everyday tasks, lack of personal hygiene, talking in rhymes

8

affective flattening

reduction or absence of emotional expression

9

alogia

reduction or absence of speech

10

avolition

reduction or absence of motivation

11

anhedonia

inability to experience pleasure

12

catatonia

remaining motionless, often in awkward positions for long periods

13

chlorpromazine

first ansischizophrenic drug. alleviates schizophrenic symptoms.

14

reserpine

active ingredient of snakeroot plant. has an anti schizophrenic effect, however it produces a dangerous decline in blood pressure at the doses needed for treatment

15

dopamine theory of schizophrenia

theory that schizophrenia is causes by too much dopamine and, conversely, that anti schizophrenic drugs exert their effects by decreasing dopamine levels.

16

dopamine theory of schizophrenia

theory that schizophrenia is causes by too much dopamine and, conversely, that anti schizophrenic drugs exert their effects by decreasing dopamine levels.

17

metabolites

substances that are created by the breakdown of another substance in cells

18

haloperidol

one of the most potent anti schizophrenic drugs. low affinity for dopamine receptors

19

phenothiazines

chemical class of chlorpomazine

20

butyrophenones

chemical class of haloperidol and other anti schizophrenic drugs

21

neuroleptics

antischizophrenic drugs

22

atypical neuroleptics

drugs that are effective against schizophrenia without binding strongly to D2 receptors

23

clozapine

first atypical neuroleptic to be licensed for clinical use and has an affinity for D1 receptors, D4 receptors, and several serotonin and histamine receptors but only slight affinity for D2 receptors

24

clozapine

first atypical neuroleptic to be licensed for clinical use and has an affinity for D1 receptors, D4 receptors, and several serotonin and histamine receptors but only slight affinity for D2 receptors

25

psychedelic drugs

a drug whose primary action is to alter perception, emotion, and cognition

26

anhedonia

loss of capability to experience pleasure

27

clinical depression/ major depressive disorder

depression that is so severe that it is difficult for the patient to meet the essential requirements of daily life

28

affective disorder

any psychiatric disorder characterized by disturbances of mood or emotion

29

mania

and affective disorder characterized by overconfidence, impulsivity, distractibility, and high energy

30

mood disorders

A.K.A affective disorders

31

bipolar affective disorder

depression patientes who experience periods of mania

32

unipolar affective disorder

depression patients who do not experience periods of mania

33

reactive depression

depression triggered by negative experiences

34

endogenous depression

depression with no apparent cause

35

seasonal affective disorder (SAD)

attacks of depression and lethargy typically occur every winter

36

postpartum depression

intense, sustained depression experienced by some women after they give birth

37

iproniazid

first antidepressant drug

38

monoamino oxidase (MAO)

the enzyme that breaks down monoamine neurotransmitter in the cytoplasm

39

MAO inhibitors

antidepressant drugs that increase the level of monoamine neurotransmitters by inhibiting the action of monoamine oxidase

40

cheese effect

the surges in blood pressure that occur when individuals taking MAO inhibitors consume tyramine-rich foods, such as cheese

41

tricyclic antidepressants

antidepressant whose chemical structures include three rings of atoms

42

imipramine

the first tricyclic antidepressant, initially thought to be an anti schizophrenic drug

43

selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

serotonin agonists that exert agonistic effects by blocking the repute of serotonin from the synapses

44

prozac

first SSRI to be developed

45

selective norepinephrine-reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)

used against depression and block norepinephrine

46

mood stabilizers

drugs that act against depression without increasing mania, or conversely, act against mania without increasing depression

47

lithium

simple metallic ion found to act as a mood stabilizer

48

lithium

simple metallic ion found to act as a mood stabilizer

49

monoamine theory

depression is associated with under activity at serotonergic and noradrenergic synapses

50

up-regulation

when an insufficient amount of a neurotransmitter is released at the synapse, there are usually compensatory increases in the number of receptors for that neurotransmitter

51

anxiety disorder

anxiety that becomes severe enough that it disrupts normal functioning. associated with feelings of anxiety and with a variety of physiological stress reactions

52

tachycardia

rapid heartbeat

53

hypertension

high blood pressure

54

generalized anxiety disorders

characterized by stress responses and extreme feelings of anxiety that occur in the absence of any obvious precipitating stimulus

55

phobic anxiety disorders

triggered by exposure to particular objects

56

agoraphobia

pathological fear of public places and open spaces

57

panic disorders

rapid-onset attacks of extreme fear and severe symptoms of stress

58

obsessive-compulsive disorders

characterized by frequently recurring, uncontrollable, anxiety-producing thought (obsessions) and impulses (compulsions)

59

post-traumatic stress disorder

persistent pattern of psychological distress following exposure to an extreme stress

60

post-traumatic stress disorder

persistent pattern of psychological distress following exposure to an extreme stress

61

benzodiazepines

widely prescribed for treatment of anxiety disorders. also prescribed as sleep-inducing drugs, anticonvulsants, and muscle relaxants

62

ataxia

disruption of motor activity

63

buspirone

widely used in the treatment of anxiety disorders

64

comorbidity

their tendency to occur together in the same individual

65

anxiolytic drugs

anti-anxiety drugs

66

elevated-plus-maze test

four-armed maze where two arms have sides and two do not, elevated from the group. measure of anxiety proportion of time the rats spend in the enclosed arms, rather than venturing onto the exposed arms

67

defensive-burying test

rats are shocked by a wire-wrapped wooden dowel mounted on the wall. the measure of anxiety is the amount of time the rats spent spraying bedding material form the floor at the source of the shock

68

risk-assessment test

after a single brief exposure to a cat, rats flee to their burrows and freeze and then engage in a variety of risk taking behaviors before their behaviors returns to normal. the measure of anxiety is the amount of time the rat spends frozen and risk assessment

69

tourette syndrom

a disorder of tics

70

tics

involuntary, repetitive stereotyped movements or vocalizations

71

coprolalia

uttering obscenities

72

echolalia

repetition of another's words

73

palilalia

repetition of one's own words

74

rebound

the tics become even worse following a period of suppression

75

rebound

the tics become even worse following a period of suppression

76

translational research

research designed to translate basic scientific discoveries into effective clinical treatments

77

clinical trials

studies conducted on human volunteers to assess the therapeutic efficacy of an untested drug or other treatment

78

protocol

conditions

79

placebo-control groups

groups of patients who receive a control substance rather than the drug

80

double-blind

the tests are conducted so that neither the patients nor the physicians interacting with them know the treatment each patient received.

81

active placebos

control drugs that have no therapeutic effect bu produce side effects similar to those produced by the drug under evaluation

82

orphan drugs

drugs for which the market is too small for them to be profitable

83

translational bottleneck

only a small proportion of potentially valuable ideas or treatments receive funding for translational research