Chapter 7 Flashcards Preview

BioPsych > Chapter 7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (76):
1

exteroceptive sensory systems

the auditory (hearing), somatosensory (touch), olfactory (smell) and gustatory (taste) systems

2

primary sensory cortex

area of the sensory cortex that receives most of its input directly from the thalamic relay nuclei of that system

3

secondary sensory cortex

compromises the areas of the sensory cortex that receives most of their input from the primary sensory cortex of that system or from the other areas of the secondary cortex of the same system

4

Association cortex

any area of cortex that receives input from more than one sensory system

5

hierarchical organization

hierarchy is a system whose members can be assigned to specific levels or ranks in relation to one another

6

sensation

the process of detecting the presence of stimuli

7

perception

higher-order process of integrating, recognizing, and interpreting complete patterns of sensations

8

functional segregation

characterizes the organization of sensory system ... each of the three levels of cerebral cortex in each sensory system contains functionally distinct areas that specializes in different kinds of analysis

9

functionally homogeneous

assumed that all areas of cortex at any given level of a sensory hierarchy acted together to perform the same function --- false assumption

10

serial system

information of the sensory hierarchy flows among the components over just one pathway, like a string through a strand of beads -- false assumption

11

parallel system

information flows through the components over multiple pathways

12

parallel processing

uses the parallel system... known as an simultaneous analysis of a signal in different ways by the multiple parallel pathways of a neural network ... correct system

13

binding problem

how does the brain combine individual sensory attributes to produce integrated perceptions

14

amplitude frequency and pure tones

exist only in laboratories and sound recording studios

15

fourier analysis

the mathematical procedure for breaking down complex waves into their component sine waves

16

fundamental frequency

highest frequency of which the various component frequencies of a sound are multiples

17

missing fundamental

not relating the pitch of a complex sound to the frequency of any one of the sound's components

18

tympanic membrane

the eardrum vibrates when hit by sound waves

19

ossicles

the small bones of the middle ear: the malleus (hammer), incus (the anvil), and the stapes (stirrup)

20

oval window

the membrane that transfers vibrations from the ossicles to the fluid of the cochlea

21

cochlea

long, coiled tube in the inner ear that is filled with fluid and contains the organ of Corti and its auditory receptors

22

organ of Corti

the auditory receptor organ, comprising the basilar membrane, the hair cells, and the tectorial membrane

23

hair cells

auditory receptors

24

basilar membrane

the membrane of the organ of Corti in which the hair cell receptors are embedded

25

tectorial membrane

the cochlear membrane that rests on the hair cells

26

auditory nerve

branch of auditory-vestibular nerve that carries auditory signals from the hair cells in the basilar membrane

27

tonotopic

organized, like the primary auditory cortex, according to the frequency of sound

28

semicircular canals

receptive organs of the vestibular system

29

vestibular system

the sensory system that detects changes in the direction and intensity of head movements and that contributes to the maintenance of balance through its outputs to the motor system

30

superior olives

medullary nuclei that play a role in sound localization

31

inferior colliculi

the structures of the tectum that receive auditory input from the superior olives

32

medial geniculate nuclei

the auditory thalamic nuclei that receive input from the inferior colliculi and project to primary auditory cortex

33

anterior auditory pathway

involved in identifying sounds "what"

34

posterior auditory pathway

involved in locating sounds "where"

35

conductive deafness

hearing impairment associated with damage to the ossicles

36

nerve deafness

hearing impairment associated with damage to the cochlea or auditory nerve

37

tinnitus

ringing of the ears

38

cochlear implants

bypass damage to the auditory hair cells by converting sounds picked up by a microphone on the patient's ear to electrical signals, which are then carried to the cochlea by a bundle of electrodes

39

somatosensations

sensations from body

40

somatosensory system

three separate but interacting systems

41

exteroceptive system

senses external stimuli that are applied to the skin

42

proprioceptive system

monitors information about the position of the body that comes from receptors in the muscles, joints, and organs of balance

43

interoceptive system

provides general information about conditions within the body (e.g. temperature and blood pressure)

44

exteroceptive system

comprises three division: perceiving mechanical stimuli (touch), one for thermal stimuli ( temperature) and one for nociceptive stimuli (pain)

45

free nerve endings

neurons endings with no specialized structures on them... are particularly sensitive to temperature change and pain

46

pacinian corpuscles

largest and deepest cutaneous receptors...adapt rapidly, respond to sudden displacement of the skin but not to constant pressure

47

Merkel's disk and Ruffini endings

adapt slowly and respond to gradual skin indentation and skin stretch

48

stereognosis

identification of objects by touch

49

dermatome

area of the body that is innervated by the left and right dorsal roots of a given segment of the spinal cord

50

dorsal-column medial-lemniscus system

tends to carry information about touch and proprioception

51

anterolateral system

tends to carry information about pain and temperature

52

somatotopic

organized according to a map of the body surface

53

somatosensory homunculus

the somatotopic map

54

astereognosia

inability to recognize objects by touch

55

asomatognosia

failure to recognize parts of one's own body

56

anosognosia

failure of neuropsychological patients to recognize their own symptoms

57

contralateral neglect

the tendency not to respond to stimuli that are contralateral to a right-hemisphere injury

58

rubber hand illusion

the feelign that an extraneous object, in this case a rubber hand, is actually part of one's own body

59

hemispherectomized

patients with one cerebral hemisphere removed

60

raphe nuclei

cluster of serotonergic nuclei in the core of the medulla

61

Neuropathic pain

severe chronic pain in the absence of a recognizable pain stimulus

62

pheromones

chemicals that influence the physiology and behavior of conspecifics (members of the same species)

63

olfactory mucosa

upper part of the nose which holds the olfactory receptors cells, embedded in a layer of mucus-covered tissue

64

olfactory bulbs

where the synapse on neurons that project via the olfactory tracts to the brain

65

olfactory glomeruli

axons of olfactory receptors terminate in the discrete clusters of neurons near the surface of the olfactory bulbs

66

chemotopic

organized, like the olfactory bulb, according to a map of various odors

67

taste buds

taste receptors cells found on the tongue and in parts of the oral cavity

68

solitary nucleus

the medullary relay nucleus of the gustatory system

69

anosmia

inability to smell

70

ageusia

inability to taste

71

selective attention

consciously perceive only a small subset of the many stimuli that excite our sensory organs at any one time and largely ignore the rest

72

endogenous attention

Attention focused on internal cognitive processes

73

exogenous attention

Attention focused on external events

74

cocktail-party phenomenon

the fact when we are in total focus in one conversation and totally unaware of the content around us the mentioning of our name in the external environment would obtain our attention

75

change blindness

subject is shown a photographic image on a computer screen and is asked to report any change in the image as soon as it is noticed

76

simultanagnosia

difficulty in attending visually to more than one object at a time