Chapter 11- Water Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11- Water Deck (43):
1

H2O is

a greenhouse gas, it hold heat

2

drought=

-no clouds
-positive feedback loop

3

Water in Canada

-lakes and rivers (over 2 million lakes, 8500 named rivers)
-groundwater (50% of our freshwater, 6million Canadians rely on ground water)
-glaciers (1000 named glaciers)

4

What % of Canada is covered with lakes and rivers?

12%

5

aquifer

sand and rocks that hold water if oil and gas pipes break through the aquifer must be careful about contaminants

6

Ground water

-creating by surface water passing into the ground
-contained in sand & gravel, pores and cracks in bedrock (aquifers)

7

Canada supplies how much global freshwater>

20% of global freshwater supply
only 0.5% of the population
-water used to be a commons resource but now it is becoming commercialized

8

What % of wetlands does Canada have?

25%- more than any other country

9

Importance of wetlands

-cleaning water before it reaches aquifer
-some of most biodiverse areas due to interface between land and water

10

Intake

amount withdrawn or used from water supply

11

Discharge

amount returned to the source

12

Consumption

intake-discharge

13

recirculation

water used 2+ times, or recycled to another use

14

gross water use

intake + recirculation (hydroelectric dams=100% returned to original source
-can decrease water use by having a water meter

15

wasting water

agriculture and irrigation
-very wasteful to water @ 30 degrees

16

Consumption

Canada is 2nd in the world USA is 1st
about 326 litres per person per day at home
refugee camp had 20L per day

17

Reasons for complacency about water supplies

-due to myth of superabundance

18

Human interventions in hydrological cycle

-water diversions (changing course of a river to divert it somewhere else)
-divert river into another river has huge ecological implications with species
-do diversions to avoid flooding

19

How many dams to we have in Canada

600 large dams

20

How many water basins?

60 large inter-basin diversions

21

Purpose of diversions

1. Increase water supplies for community regions
2. Deflect watercourses away from or around areas
3. Enhance capacity of a river for other uses (floating, log transport, wastes)
4. Combine/consolidate water lows for hydroelectricity

22

James Bay Project

** READ IN TEXTBOOK

23

Water pollution comes from...

industrial
urban
agriculture

24

point source pollution

origin easy to identify (know where it came from)

25

non-point source pollution

can't be identified with specific places
-hard to know where it came from ex) agriculture run-off, car pollution

26

Point Sources

ex) factory, pouring stuff into stream, waste from house, institutions
-can be treated to varying degrees

27

3 levels of water treatment

1. Primary- removes only insoluble material (let waste settle out)
2. Secondary- removes bacterial impurities from water that has already had primary treatment, bacteria that eats up the nasties
3. Tertiary- removes chemicals and nutrient contaminants following secondary treatment

28

Water Source for Camrose

dry mead lake

29

Ways of categorizing water

-excellent, good, fair, marginal, poor
Bow River@ cochrane= excellent
Bow River @ Calgary= fair
Athabasca river is in the best shape in many parts of the province

30

Non-point sources

diffuse pollution- agricultural and urban run-off
Layered problem-
1st layer- environmental degradation & economic costs imposed on downstream users
2nd layer- ecosystem health or integrity and especially human health
3rd layer- problems regarding human values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviour

31

Buffer

keep trees and plants around to filter the water, birth control pills into organisms causing gender changes (more females)

32

Solution to pollution

dilution (popular phrasing not a good solution)

33

Water Security

-ensuring a sufficient quantity of water of adequate quality for human use

34

Watershed

-an area or ridege of land that separates waters flowing to different rivers, basins, or seas
-an area or region drained by a river, river system, or other body of water

35

We are in the...

battleriver watershed

36

Water as a hazard

Flooding- normal hydrological function
-water is dynamic and cannot be controlled
-require regular floods to regenerate organisms
-Pakistan flood killed over 100s of 1000s of people

37

Reducing Flood Damage

1. Structural Approaches- modify behaviour of natural system by delaying or redirecting flood waters
2. Non-structural approaches- modify behaviour of the people

38

Levies

ways to channel water away

39

Structural Approaches

1. Upstream dams and storage reservoirs
2. Protective dykes or levees
3. Deepening or straightening river channels

40

Non-Structural Approaches

1. Land-use zoning
2. Relocation of structures (move things from areas of flooding)
3. Information & education
3. Insurance $$$$- most insurance companies won't insure if you fill on a flood plane

41

Best strategy?

Structural and non-sturctural approaches (mix of the two)

42

Camrose

more prone to drought
-2002 and 2008 major drought years

43

Drought

-function of...
-lack of precipitation
-temperature
-evaporation
-evapotranspiration
-moisture retention capacity of soil
-resilience of flora & fauna
-animals able to wait out the drought
-some plants wait for drougt to grow/bloom