Chapter 9- Forests Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9- Forests Deck (48):
1

How many forests does is make to make up a forest?

enough trees with overlapping crowns forming 60% to 100% cover
-one tree does not=a forest

2

crowns

tops of trees

3

crown fire

at the top of trees

4

Functions of Forests

-non-wood forest products
-biodiversity and habitat preservation
-carbon storage
-agricultural land
-human settlements
-fuelwood and charcol
-industrial wood for lumber, paper, and packaging
-ecotourism and recreation
-watershed, protection, and erosion control

5

Continent that does not have forest

-antarctica

6

tropical forest

lost almost 80% in some countries=huge biodiversity loss
-thousands of different types of trees

7

Canada's Forest

-10% of world's forests are in Canada
-compromise ~1/2 of the land area of Canada
-over 1/2 of Canada's forests are undisturbed
-approximately 66% of canada's 140,000 species live in forests
-forests are a really good habitat, good biodiversity

8

insects

most biodiverse group (lots in forest)

9

Forest Regions of Canada

1. Boreal forest
2. Subalpine
3. Montane
4. Coast
5. Colombian
6. Deciduous
7. Great Lakes- St. Lawrence
8. Acadian

10

Ecozone

an area of the earth's surface that represents a large ecological zone and has characteristic landforms and climate
-distinguished by plants wildlife, climate,landforms, and human activities.

11

Boreal Forest

-circumpolar
-covers 22% of Canada's land mass
-22% of canada's freshwater surface area (lakes rivers streams)
-support commercial wetland activities (logging, pulp and paper, timber)
-lungs of the country massive part of Canada
14% of world's forests

12

Boreal Species

lodgepole pine, woodland caribou, white spruce, black bear, trembling aspen, lynx and snowshoe hare, tamarack

13

Stresses on Boreal Forest

1. Logging
2. Mining- land clearing, pollution, jobs
3. Hydroelectric Development- 85% of drainage basins altered by hydroelectric
4. Climate change- ^ forest fire and pests
5. Acid Precipitation- S and N20 in atmosphere

14

Harvesting Methods

selective cutting- dangerous for people cutting
-shelterwood cutting
-clear-cutting (most common&popular)
-patch cutting (rotating clear cuts (allows movement corridors)

15

Subalpine Species

-englemann spruce, alpine fir, lodgepole pin, mountainous uplands

16

Montane

valley bottoms, douglas fir, lodgepole pine, trembling aspen

17

What creates difference between subalpine and montane?

-temperature

18

Coast

western red cedar
western hemlock
sitka spruce
douglas fir
almost exclusively coniferous

19

Columbian

western red cedar
Douglas fir
western hemlock
merges coast, montane, and subalpine regions
-high biodiversity, interior of BC

20

Deciduous/Carolinian

-beech, maple, black walnut, oak, hickory, northern limits for some deciduous trees, rare forest type
-very impacted by agriculture

21

Great Lakes- St. Lawrence

red pine
eastern pine
eastern hemlock
yellow birch
maple
oak
-lots of maple syrup comes from here

22

Acadian

red spruce
balsam fir
maple
yellow birch
-related to Great lakes, St. Lawrence and Boreal regions
NB, NS, PEI, interface with hardwoods as well

23

Forest helps protect

-freshwater

24

Forests are what % of Canada's Land mass?

20% & 22% of freshwater surface area

25

Clear cutting causes

lots of evaporation

26

Biodiversity and Habitat

-over 20% of world's water originates in Canada's forests
-80% of the world's terrestrial species found in global forests

27

Deforestation rate in Madagascar and Brazil

-parts are almost totally deforested

28

Where are nutrients stored?

Temperate forest store nutrients in soil
Tropical forest store nutrients in biomass (leaf litter trees etc)

29

Role of Biodiversity

-ecosystem connectivity
-photosynthesis & Respiration
-nutrient cycling
-keys to diversity
ex) tree growing on another log, fallen log decomposes and other plants start growing on it

30

Komodi Bears

-flagship species (spirit bear, lives in BC, very rare)

31

Flagship species

a species that people will care about and want to save its habitat or the animal, usually cute

32

Economy and non-wood forest products

-442 million/yr for economy
wild rice, mushrooms, animal products, maple syrup, agriculture benefits as well

33

Canada's Forests

10% of world's total forest
-45% of land base

34

How do we manage forests?

need to identify what is being managed in the first place
-define ownership/jurisdiction (who owns it/who has control)

35

Forest Tenure

conditions that govern forest ownership and use

36

Forest Tenure in Canada

94% of forests are publicly owned then the province leases the land to private companies who then cut within guidelines
-6% private ownership

37

Forest Industry

Annual harvest=175 million m3/yr
1/5th of global supply
exports- lumber, paper, newsprint, pulp
350 dependent communities

38

How many people are employed in timber industry?

over 80,000
94 billion$ to Canadian economy

39

Forest Harvesting effects on Ecosystem

1. Biodiversity- reduced natural variability, early successional species, more monocultures, loss of species, fragmentation of habitat, plant in straight rows=little structural diversity)
2. Productivity- biomass taken away from sight, seasonal differences
3. Soils- nutrients gone, erosion, leeching, over saturated nutrients gone from soil
4. Water cycle- less evapotranspiration

40

Forest Fragmentation

due to logging mines
limits pathways for animals to walk and travel places
bare patches in forest

41

Advantages of Clear Cutting

-money
-safer for people cutting
-fewer roads
-lots of jobs
-good when al pine trees are dead due to pine beetle to reduce risk of fire

42

Advantages of Forest Fire

-recycled nutrients
-biomass still on site
-don't need roads
-part of natural cycle
-regenerate species

43

Disadvantages of Forest Fire

-dangerous near human community
-can get out of control quickly with dead trees and climate change
-animals need forest to live

44

Compare fire vs. clear cut

Openings- irregular, regular
Boundaries- gradual , abrupt
Vegetation- left standing, removed
Pathogens- most killed, most survive
Nutrients- released back into soil, removed
Soil- build up with nutrients, compacted and eroded
N-fixers- growth, reduced
Species- succession, reduced

45

Silviculture

theory and practice of controlling establishment, composition, growth, and quality of forest stands
-like agriculture but with forest
-straight line trees
-clean forest floors
-can replant and leave shelter wood behind

46

Methods of silviculture

-reforestation replant
-monocultures (one type of tree)
-NSR- not sufficiently restocked

47

Biocides

kill living things

48

Forest sustainability solutions

-alternatives
-value-added-build furniture here, adds value to the trees
-renewable practices- rotating cuts
-precautionary principle- wait until we know what we are doing
-protected areas
-research
-hollistic view