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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (87):
1

What is life?

life...
-uses energy
-increases in size and complexity
-reproduces
-reacts to environment
-regulates and maintains internal environment

2

biotic

living

3

abiotic

non-living

4

matter

anything that has mass and takes up space

5

elements

simplest building blocks of matter

6

compounds

two or more different elements held tightly together by chemical bonds between their atoms
-important because they can mix with human compounds that bond with the naturally occurring elements/compounds and disrupt the environment

7

Quality of Matter

measure of potential for use, concentration, organization

8

Energy

ability to cause change
ability to do work (movement, growth, reproduction, tissue replacement
-measure in calories
-has no mass and takes up no space

9

calories

amount of heat necessary to raise one gram or mililitre of water one degree C starting at 15 degrees C

10

Radiant Energy

from the sun
-used for photosynthesis, warming

11

Chemical Energy

stored in chemical bonds of molecules

12

Thermal Energy

motion of particles in matter. Feel the energy of particles in matter as heat. Add thermal energy, particles move faster.

13

Mechanical Energy

energy possessed by an object due to its motion of position

14

Electrical Energy

primary source of energy consumption in any modern household

15

Kinetic Energy

derived from an object's motion and mass (energy of motion)

16

Potential Energy

stored energy available for later

17

Energy Quality

measure of ability to perform useful work

18

Low Quality energy

diffuse, disperses at low temperatures, difficult to gather

19

High quality energy

easy to use, but energy disperses quickly

20

Inefficient Energy use

Humans use high quality energy for tasks in which low quality energy could be used

21

Economy and technology is...

built around transformation of low-quality energy into high-quality energy

22

Largest source of Energy

the SUN
42%=heating of atmosphere and earth's crust
34%= reflected back
23%= evaporation
1%=wind/waves
0.023%= photosynthesis

23

Energy Flow in systems

everything is connected
see diagram in Lecture 5
nitrogen is the most abundant

24

1st Law of Thermodynamics

energy cannot be created nor destroyed
organisms do not create energy they obtain it from the surrounding environments

25

2nd Law of Thermodynamics

when energy is transformed from one from to another there is always a decrease in useable energy (dispersed energy often lost as heat at low temperatures)

26

Entropy

measure of disorder or randomness of a system (higher entropy=increase loss)

27

Which law is most important for organisms?

2nd law- must continually expend energy to maintain themselves

28

What do many ecological problems result from?

transformation of society from a renewable to non-renewable

29

Photosynthesis

CO2+ water+ sunlight--> O2+ CHO +water

30

Autotroph

organisms that can capture energy to manufacture matter (aka producer/primary producer) create their own food

31

Types of Autotrophs

Phototrophs- obtain energy from light
Chemoautotrophs- gain energy from chemicals available in the environment

32

Heterotroph/Consumer

eat other organisms for energy supply

33

Types of Heterotrophs

Herbivore- eat producers, source of energy for other heterotrophs
Carnivore- eat Primary and Secondary consumers
Decomposers- eat dead organisms/take nutrients and put it back into the earth

34

Omnivore

Have broad diets

35

Detrivore

earthworm, helps start the process

36

@ Trophic Levels

1) Producers
2) Primary consumers (herbivores)
3) Secondary consumers (carnivores)
4) Tertiary Consumers (top carnivores)

37

Food Web

numerous alternative route for energy flow through ecosystem

38

Food Chain

implies organization
small food chains have less resistance to change

39

Resilience

ability of an ecosystem to recover from change

40

Mid-latitude web vs. Arctic web

Arctic web does not have many species therefore if you take something out there will be drastic change whereas in the mid-latitude web each organism is linked to many different things so it is more resilient to change

41

Arctic Food Webs

-very short = very efficient
-less entropy (less dispersion)

42

Biotic pyramids

-lose energy at each trophic level (10%)
-loss of biomass at each level
-2nd law of thermodynamics applies
-anthropomorphic due to hierarchy

43

How are these Laws relevant to Humans?

-can't get something for nothing
-everything has to go somewhere (waste)
-recycling (energy vs. matter) takes energy to recycle
-efficient choices of energy (eat lower on food chain)

44

Vegetarianism- Pros

-8-16kg of grain = 1kg of beef
-less energy needed to feed people
-heath and nutrition (fats-cancer&heart disease)
-animal welfare
-enviro impact of meat production
-coast- purchase, storage, cleaning

45

Vegetarianism Cons

-not all environmental impacts from agriculture are due to meat
-meat production can be ethical
-plant production also generates impacts
-natural to eat animals
-can be unhealthy
-meat and plant production can be compatible
-genetically modified foods

46

Gross Primary Productivity

rate at which energy is transformed into biomass

47

biomass

the sum of all living material or a species in an environment

48

Net primary productivity

NPP=GPP-R(cellular respiration from autotrophs)
- amounts of energy available to heterotrophs

49

Most productive areas in ecosystems per unit

estuaries
tropical rain forests (lots of biomass)
marshes and swamps (lots of critters)

50

estuaries

rivers meet oceans

51

ecotones

two habitat/ecozones coming together

52

Net Community Productivity

Subtracts respiration from heterotrophs
Increases as community matures to a maximization of NCP
HUmans look to maximize NPP
Problem- want to take it when it has most amount of potential gain

53

Ecosystem Structure

1. Individual Organism
2. Population
3. Community
4. Ecosystem
5. Biome

54

Population

group of individuals of a species

55

Community

population of several species

56

Ecosystem

collection of communities interacting in the environment

57

Biome

many ecosystems together
classified by dominant vegetation and animal communities (climate)

58

Ecosystem components

Biotic- living
Abiotic- non living- but critical to the system

59

Soils

come from parent material

60

parent material

- remains of bedrock or where sediments deposited by water, ice, landslides, wind

61

Inorganic Elements in Soils

Ca (Calcium)
Fe (Iron)
Mn (Manganese)
P (Phosphorus)

62

Soil horizons

layers forming in the soil
organic matter
Dark- rich in humus
light coloured
Varied

63

Soil profile

View across these horizons

64

Fossorial species

live underground, change in soil can change an entire ecosystem

65

Limiting Factors (abiotic)

Temperature (increase cause change)
Water Availability (dominant limiting factor)
Nutrient Availability (phosphorous in a water body)

66

Law of Tolerance

species' existence (presence, number, and distribution) is determined by level of factors in a tolerable range
(BELL CURVE) zone of intolerance, zone of physiological stress, optimum range

67

Niche

combination of physical, chemical, and biological conditions for a species growth (soils, minerals)

68

Habitat

where a species lives

69

Specialist Species

narrow niche, end up in trouble

70

Generalist species

very broad niche, many potential food items

71

Biodiversity types

1) Genetic diversity- enough genetic resilience to bounce back
2) Species Diversity- species richness (count how many species are in an area)

72

Competitive Exclusion Principle

No two species can occupy the same niche in the same area

73

Fundamental Nice

potential

74

REalized niche

reality

75

Interspecific interactions

between different species
-competition where niche are similar
-resource partitioning (divide resources so you don't compete against each other)

76

Predation

death (owl eats mouse)

77

Parasitism

type of predation involving parasites (may be slow process, not always death)
parasites are smaller than the prey

78

Mutualism

both species benefit

79

Commensalism

one plant that grows on another
-One benefits the other no effect

80

Extinction

no individuals of a species exist on Earth

81

Extirpation

no individuals of a species left in a certain area

82

exotic

brought into ecosystem on purpose or by accident

83

endemic

normally thrives in a specific ecosystem

84

indicator

used to watch the environment

85

Keystone species

have disproportionately large effect on enviro relative to its own needs

86

Impacts of global climate change

-numbers and distribution of species
-functioning of ecosystems (energy and matter flows)
-productivity
-food webs

87

Implications of climate change

species with largest range of tolerance will increase
-see changes in species ranges, abundance and number