Chapter 15- Protected Areas Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15- Protected Areas Deck (35):
1

Purpose of protected spaces

-sustaining habitat in wild spaces
-anticipate and protect in advance
-land aside and put a boundary on it
-protected parks are all over the world

2

Modern era of Protected areas

-Yellowstone national park- first national park
-established in 1872
-sets off new era of understanding connection
-people can come visit

3

Canada's First Protected Park

1885- Rocky Mountain National Park aka Banff
-created due to railroad trying to unify the country before US took parts of Canada
-Used hot springs as an attraction and a way to raise money to finish the railroad
-marketing tool

4

What is a protected area?

-municipal
-provincial
-national- Parks Canada
-national- wildlife

5

Protected area

an area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity and of natural and associated cultural resources and managed through legal or other effective means

6

Types of Protected Areas (IUCN)

1. Nature reserve or Wilderness area- most protected, scientific research/ecological monitoring
2. National Park- ecosystem protection and recreation
3. Natural Monument- outstanding natural/cultural feature ex) hoodoos
4. Habitat/Species Management Area- habitats for particular species
5. Protected landscape/seascape
6. Managed resource protected area- natural values and sustainable use (natural harvest)

7

Functions and Values of Protected Areas

-habitat protection
-tourist destination/economic value
-help people care about the enviro
-create relationships with environment
-support local and national economies
-species/biodiversity protection
-conservation effort
-fortress for invasive species
-conserving natural habitat
-natural values and sustainable use
-insurance for sensitive species
-cultural & historical sites
-natural experiences(swim, hike, backpack)
-science & monitoring
-aesthetics & natural beauty
-watershed protection via forest

8

1987 Bruntland Commission Report

-goal of 12-40% of land as a protected area
world=13%
North America=13-14%
Canada=10% (also have a lot of undeveloped unprotected land)
Alberta=12.5% (1st province to have a wetland policy)

9

% of protected parks

terrestrial=60%
marine=less than 10%
have only 4 national marine protected areas by Parks Canada

10

Number of Protected Areas

has been increasing exponentially since bruntland report in 1987

11

International Designations

1. UNESCO World Heritage Site- natural or cultural places with outstanding universal value (Dinosaur Provincial Park, AB)
2. UNESCO Biosphere Reserve- examples of balanced relationship between humans and environment eg) Waterton Lakes National Park
3) Ramsar sites- wetlands of international importance designated under the Ramsar COnvention ex) Beaver Hill Lake

12

Barriers of Establishing A Protected Area

-private land ownership
-unsupportive public
-money
-existing development
-oil/gas

13

Province with largest % protected area

BC- 14.1%

14

Province with lowest % protected area

New Brunswick- 3.3% why? lots of private land ownership, smaller land mass

15

Federal Protected Areas

less than 10% of Canada is formally designated as protected (2 new ones in last couple years)

16

How many National Parks/National Reserves do we have?

44

17

How many National Marine Protected Areas

4 (very few compared to terrestrial park)

18

Provincial Designations

1. Provincial Park- highest level of protection ex) Lakeland PP
2. Wildland Parks- hard to get to ex) Caribou Mountains VP
3. Wilmore WIlderness Park- Act own legistlation
4. Provincial Recreation Area- ex) Kakwa River PRA Allows some hunting
5. Ecological Reseres- ex) Kootenay Plains ER
6. Wilderness Areas- ex) Siffleur WA, some restrictions on use
7. Natural Area- Beaverhill NA- small protected pocket
8. Heritage Rangelands- ex) Black Creek cattle range but with protection

19

Are protected areas effective?

yes- effective for learning about nature (knowledge)
-the larger the area you protect the less extinction
-can also draw some negative aspects

20

Working together...

-with other parks helps to monitor species
-more expertise with lots of people from different areas working together
-evolved to look outwards
-manage for long term viability

21

External: Mineral & Energy Development

-pollution in river is showing up in the park

22

External: Forestry

-log forest right up to the boundary of a Park
-habitat diversity
-aquatic input

23

External- Residential Development

-within parks we have lots of development
-external residential development provides a lot of external pressure

24

External: Agriculture

-animals leave the park boundary to eat something dead and then get shot
-bears come down to eat carcass on agricultural land

25

External: Air Pollution

-transboundary effect
-reaches park from origin

26

External- Introduced species

-exotic species- don't know the boundary
-insects, birds, plants

27

External- other

noise pollution
-gargabe
-odour
-visual pollution

28

Internal Visitor Pressure

-travelling on trails
-people approaching wildlife
-campground size- separate motor homes and tents

29

Internal: Facility Development

-Can have effect on the natural aspects of the Park

30

Internal: Transportation Corridors

highways and barriers to prevent animals from getting through

31

Internal: Resource Renewal

poaching and selling antlers found in the park

32

Interval: suppress natural processes

-fire suppression
-re-introduce fire

33

Internal: INappropriate decisions

-want to put in a massive view point in Jasper National park over the glacier
-lots of public push back

34

Park Management Tools

wardens, rangers, keep people on tour buses
-prescribed fires
-signs

35

Beyond Protected Areas

-private organizations
-through external non-profit organizations
-Protected areas are not sufficient enough to conserve ecosystems
-Stewardship- conservation easements
-private purchase