Chapter 15- Protected Areas Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15- Protected Areas Deck (35):

Purpose of protected spaces

-sustaining habitat in wild spaces
-anticipate and protect in advance
-land aside and put a boundary on it
-protected parks are all over the world


Modern era of Protected areas

-Yellowstone national park- first national park
-established in 1872
-sets off new era of understanding connection
-people can come visit


Canada's First Protected Park

1885- Rocky Mountain National Park aka Banff
-created due to railroad trying to unify the country before US took parts of Canada
-Used hot springs as an attraction and a way to raise money to finish the railroad
-marketing tool


What is a protected area?

-national- Parks Canada
-national- wildlife


Protected area

an area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity and of natural and associated cultural resources and managed through legal or other effective means


Types of Protected Areas (IUCN)

1. Nature reserve or Wilderness area- most protected, scientific research/ecological monitoring
2. National Park- ecosystem protection and recreation
3. Natural Monument- outstanding natural/cultural feature ex) hoodoos
4. Habitat/Species Management Area- habitats for particular species
5. Protected landscape/seascape
6. Managed resource protected area- natural values and sustainable use (natural harvest)


Functions and Values of Protected Areas

-habitat protection
-tourist destination/economic value
-help people care about the enviro
-create relationships with environment
-support local and national economies
-species/biodiversity protection
-conservation effort
-fortress for invasive species
-conserving natural habitat
-natural values and sustainable use
-insurance for sensitive species
-cultural & historical sites
-natural experiences(swim, hike, backpack)
-science & monitoring
-aesthetics & natural beauty
-watershed protection via forest


1987 Bruntland Commission Report

-goal of 12-40% of land as a protected area
North America=13-14%
Canada=10% (also have a lot of undeveloped unprotected land)
Alberta=12.5% (1st province to have a wetland policy)


% of protected parks

marine=less than 10%
have only 4 national marine protected areas by Parks Canada


Number of Protected Areas

has been increasing exponentially since bruntland report in 1987


International Designations

1. UNESCO World Heritage Site- natural or cultural places with outstanding universal value (Dinosaur Provincial Park, AB)
2. UNESCO Biosphere Reserve- examples of balanced relationship between humans and environment eg) Waterton Lakes National Park
3) Ramsar sites- wetlands of international importance designated under the Ramsar COnvention ex) Beaver Hill Lake


Barriers of Establishing A Protected Area

-private land ownership
-unsupportive public
-existing development


Province with largest % protected area

BC- 14.1%


Province with lowest % protected area

New Brunswick- 3.3% why? lots of private land ownership, smaller land mass


Federal Protected Areas

less than 10% of Canada is formally designated as protected (2 new ones in last couple years)


How many National Parks/National Reserves do we have?



How many National Marine Protected Areas

4 (very few compared to terrestrial park)


Provincial Designations

1. Provincial Park- highest level of protection ex) Lakeland PP
2. Wildland Parks- hard to get to ex) Caribou Mountains VP
3. Wilmore WIlderness Park- Act own legistlation
4. Provincial Recreation Area- ex) Kakwa River PRA Allows some hunting
5. Ecological Reseres- ex) Kootenay Plains ER
6. Wilderness Areas- ex) Siffleur WA, some restrictions on use
7. Natural Area- Beaverhill NA- small protected pocket
8. Heritage Rangelands- ex) Black Creek cattle range but with protection


Are protected areas effective?

yes- effective for learning about nature (knowledge)
-the larger the area you protect the less extinction
-can also draw some negative aspects


Working together...

-with other parks helps to monitor species
-more expertise with lots of people from different areas working together
-evolved to look outwards
-manage for long term viability


External: Mineral & Energy Development

-pollution in river is showing up in the park


External: Forestry

-log forest right up to the boundary of a Park
-habitat diversity
-aquatic input


External- Residential Development

-within parks we have lots of development
-external residential development provides a lot of external pressure


External: Agriculture

-animals leave the park boundary to eat something dead and then get shot
-bears come down to eat carcass on agricultural land


External: Air Pollution

-transboundary effect
-reaches park from origin


External- Introduced species

-exotic species- don't know the boundary
-insects, birds, plants


External- other

noise pollution
-visual pollution


Internal Visitor Pressure

-travelling on trails
-people approaching wildlife
-campground size- separate motor homes and tents


Internal: Facility Development

-Can have effect on the natural aspects of the Park


Internal: Transportation Corridors

highways and barriers to prevent animals from getting through


Internal: Resource Renewal

poaching and selling antlers found in the park


Interval: suppress natural processes

-fire suppression
-re-introduce fire


Internal: INappropriate decisions

-want to put in a massive view point in Jasper National park over the glacier
-lots of public push back


Park Management Tools

wardens, rangers, keep people on tour buses
-prescribed fires


Beyond Protected Areas

-private organizations
-through external non-profit organizations
-Protected areas are not sufficient enough to conserve ecosystems
-Stewardship- conservation easements
-private purchase