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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (25):
1

Sedimentary Cycle

-most matter in lithosphere

2

Gaseous Cycle

most matter in atmosphere

3

6 nutrients on earth (97% of organic mass)

C
O
H
P
N
S

4

Residence Time

how fast something moves through a system or stays in a particular region in space

5

Gaseous phase

speeds up a cycle- gas molecules move quickly

6

Hydrological Cycle

water plays a major role in mobilization and transport of materials

7

Phosphorus

-macronutrient needed in great amounts
-essential for metabolism
-relatively rare and thus a limiting nutrient
-not in atmosphere (ONLY ONE)
-plants good at storing
-can be stored in terrestrial biosphere for 100 years
-limiting macronutrient

8

Human impact on P cycle

- mining for fertilizer and detergent
-excess runoff into aquatic ecosystems
-water pollution
-biomass removal (accelerated erosion into streams, cut down trees=remove P)
-large [ organisms ]= lots of phosphates rich waste materials
-remove from ocean via fishing

9

Ocean Dead Zone

near major cities from sewage running into ocean

10

Sulphur

-building component of proteins
-atmospheric component
-not limiting
-can have too much sulphur sometimes
-plants need chemoautotrophs to transform S from lithosphere (sydney tar ponds)
-naturally released from volcano
-wetlands have lots of sulphur

11

Human Intervention on S cycle

1. Burning coal that contains sulphur
2. smelting metal ores that contain sulphates

12

Montreal Protocol

required scrubbers on smoke stacks to get rid of sulphur
-99% of SO2 and 33% of S in atmosphere is due to humans
*ACID RAIN

13

Nitrogen

Limiting factor- chlorophyll, proteins, amino acids
-atmosphere >78% N
-acid rain, ozone depletion, & climate change
-bacteria= key player in moving nutrients around

14

Similarities of N to S

-contributes to acid rain
-depends on microbial action to become accessible to plants

15

Similarities of N to P

-limiting factor for growth (eutrophication)

16

Human Impact on N cycle

fertilizers and animal waste- eutrophication
-denitrification- transforms fertilizers to NO= greenhouse gases and ozone loss
-N-rich crops deplete soil of N
-NO from cars= acid rain
-deforestation= nitrogen release
-plowing fields= nitrogen release

17

Why are we using more N than ever before?

More cars on road
-increase crop production thus need to use more fertilizer

18

Why does the East have more alkaline soil?

Due to type of rock along hte Canadian shield, parent material and less alkaline soil

19

Carbon Cycle

-makes up 0.038% of atmophere
-taken up by plants as CO2 from atmosphere
-fossil fuels made from it via heat and pressure
-put into ocean makes ocean acidic (eats shells of shellfish)
-atmosphere is main reservoir

20

Human impact on C cycle

-loss of trees= decrease uptake and storage of carbon
-burning fossil fuels= increase greenhouse gases

21

Synergistic Effects

all C and N cycles are linked together and have similar effects on climate warming

22

Hydrological Cycle

water=necessary for life
- fuelled by solar that creates evaporation, precipitation etc
-assists other cycles
-ocean is major reservoir
-

23

Human Impacts on hydro cycle

- pollution above and below ground
-global warming (increase evaporation and transpiration rates)
-wetland draining (dry out)
-land use changes
-overconsumption
-flood control
-cloud seeding

24

Evapotranspiration

evaporation and transpiration

25

transpiration

loss of water vapour from plants