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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (59):
1

Ecozone

classification system that defines different parts of the environment with similar geography, vegetation, and animal life

2

Tundra and Arctic

precipitation= low
climate= dry
-arctic willow, polar bear, muscox (endemic to arctic)

3

Boreal (Taiga)

-forrest (pine, white spruce, black spruce, white birch, aspen)
-dominated by wildfire
-black bears , red fox
-lots of lakes and wetlands

4

Temperate Rain Forest

- highest biodiversity in Canada
-douglas fir
-spotted owl, sitka, black tailed deer
-heavily influenced by precipitation caused by Pacific Ocean
-dynamic interface between ocean, rivers, and land
-salmon spawning brings nutrients back to the land

5

Montane Cordillera

-mountain ranges
-temperature changes
-high snow pack
-mountain species of animals (mountain goat, big horned sheep, marmots)

6

pikas

indicators of climate change found on prairies and mountains

7

Prairie

good bison habitat
-height of grass determines what species will be there
-badger, bison, hawk

8

Mixed grass

where 2 ecosystems come together

9

Mixed Wood Plaines

-mix of spruce and aspen
-high biodiversity
-2 ecosystems come together

10

Atlantic Maritime

hardwood maple, beach, oak,
-salamanders, turtles,
-different from west coast

11

Mountains

show ecosystem changes through latitude due to change in temperature
going up is like driving from south to north

12

Figure 3-17

Chart FOUND IN LECTURE 7

13

Marine Ecosystem

oceans, Pacific, arctic, atlantic
-costal area, open sea
deep ocean = low biodiversity
estuaries= high biodiversity

14

Freshwater Ecosystem

rivers, streams, wetlands, lakes,
- depends on depth (due to how much light for photosynthesis)

15

Implications

understanding helps management and protection
-natural vs. human induced change
-change= complex over space and time
-presents major management challenges

16

Scientific Method

1) Observe
2) Develop Hypothesis
3) Design controlled experiment
4) Collect and Record Data
5) Interpret Data
6) Conclusion
7) Compare conclusion with hypothesis
8) Accept hypothesis
9) Reject hypothesis

17

Hypothesis Testing

1. Question derived from observations and literature
2. hypothesis generated to explain phenomenon
Experiments or observations to disprove the hypothesis
4. If can't disprove than incorporate into theory

18

Ecological Succession

-slow adaptive process
-gradual replacement of one assemblage of species by another, as conditions change over time
-use science to try and understand
-competition between species
-fire= natural process

19

Primary Succession

-colonization and subsequent occupancy of a previously unvegetated surface
-primary colonizers
-glacier recedes back

20

Primary Colonizer

- plant growth
-mosses or lichen (fungi and algae)
-photosynthetic structures

21

Common Successional Pattern

Lichen to moss to soils to herbaceous plants to shrubs to trees

22

Seral Stage

each step

23

Climax Community

final potential of ecosystem
-most productive stage

24

Cyclic succession

- ecosystem gets to a certain level and then fire, flood, wind, or colcano brings it back to an earlier sucession stage

25

Secondary Succession

have some soil and there is still stuff to work with

26

Eutrophication

-natural aging of aquatic systems
-increase in nutrient flows over time and increased plant grouwth and increased organic material
-decreased O2
- highly productive

27

Immature Ecosystem

- high net productivity
-low species diversity
-open nutrient cycles
-more generalists
-liner food chains
-poor nutrient conservation
-low stability

28

Mature Ecostyems

-low net productivity
-high species diversity (depends of ecosystem)
-closed nutrient cycles
-more specialists
-food web
-good nutrient conservation
- higher stability

29

Ecosystem homeostasis

- constant characteristics (n balance)
-internal processes adjust for changes in external conditions (dynamic equilibrium)

30

Inertia

ability of an ecosystem to withstand change

31

Resilience

ability to recover to the original state following disturbances
-vegetation starts to come back
-tundra= less resilience

32

Positive Feedback Loop

-increases change in a positive direction
-exacerbates and makes it worse
-dangerous
ex) global warming (starts with increase temperature)
ex) bear and human contact

33

Negative Feedback loop

moderates the change
ex) animal signs decrease number of animal fatalities on the road

34

level of biodiversity

1) genetic
2) species
3) ecosystem

35

biodiversity

number of species, amount of genetic variation, and number of community types in an area

36

Biodiversity in Canada

-species numbers decline from tropics to poles
-temperature is a major factor (solar radiation)

37

Biotic Potential

max rate at which a species may increase if there is no enviro resistance

38

Population Ecology

study of dynamics of species populations and how these populations interact with the enviro

39

Population

group of inter-bdreeding organisms of the same species

40

Population Density

population per area

41

Population dynamics

changes in population (births - deaths + immigration - emigration)

42

Density dependent

as population density increases, rate of growth decreases
-animals may also not breed or not produce offspring

43

delayed implantation

in enviro is too populated fertilized egg gets discharged

44

Density independent

population operative on a positive feedback loop more individuals=higher birth rate ex) humans

45

species area curves

as area increases in size the number of species also increases

46

r-strategists

large #s of young, little post natal care
-small & short life
-rapid reproduction
-early seral stages
-pioneering species

47

k-strategists

-few offspring, lots of time raising them
-live longer and are larger
-reach carrying capacity and are relatively stable

48

evolution

populations adapt to change via evolution
-change in genetic make-up over time

49

natural selection

favour certain conditions and species that are able to adapt
-mechanism in evolution
-survival of the fittest

50

species

life forms that resemble one another can interbreed successfully and producing fertile offspring
-similarity in DNA and morphology

51

Coevolution

change in one species causes change to occur in another
-one cannot live without the other
-ultimate in specialized species

52

Speciation

formation of new species as a result of divergent natural selection
-response to natural changes
CAUSES- isolation, interspecific competition, mutation

53

Effects of human activities

-huge effects
-monocultures are susceptible to outbreaks
-ex) pine beetle

54

Alien or Invader species

imported species not native to a location neutered insects brought to kill a specific pnat

55

Atlantic Puffin

live on side of cliff and return phosphorus, nitrogen back into enviro through feces and fish

56

matter

anything that has mass and takes up space

57

4 major kind of organic compounds

1. CHO
2. Fats
3. Proteins
4. Nucleic acids

58

Law of Conservation of Matter

-matter cannot be created or destroyed but simply transformed from one form to another by heat or pressure (gas liquid solid)

59

biogeochemical cycle

path where a chemical element moves through both biotic and abiotic compartments of an ecosystem