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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Deck (21):
1

genetic engineering

the direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes

2

genetically modified organism(GMO)

an organism that has acquired one or more genes by artificial means. If the gene is from another organism, typically another species, the recombinant organism is also known as a transgenic organism

3

genomic library

the entire collection of DNA segments from an organism's genome. Each segment is usually carried by a plasmid or phage.

4

genomics

the study of whole sets of genesand their interactions

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human gene therapy

a recombinant DNA procedure intended to treat disease by altering an afflicted person's genes

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vaccine

a harmless variant or derivative of a pathogen, used to stimulate a host organism's immune system to mount a long term defense against the pathogen

7

Biotechnology

The manipulation of living organisms to perform useful tasks. Today it involves DNA technology.

8

Clone

As in a verb to produce genetically identical copies of a cell, organisms or DNA molecule. As in noun, the collection of cells, organisms, or molecules resulting from cloning; also, a single organism that is genetically identical to another because it arose from the cloning of a somatic cell.

9

DNA Ligase

An enzyme, essential for DNA replication, that catalyzes the covalent bonding if adjacent nucleotides.

10

DNA Profiling

A procedure that analyzes an individual's unique collection of genetic markers using PCR and gel electrophoresis. DNA profiling can be used to determine whether two samples of genetic material were derived from the same individual.

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DNA Technology

Methods used to study or manipulate genetic material.

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Forensics

The scientific analysis of evidence for crime scene investigations and other legal proceedings.

13

Gel Electrophoresiscs

A technique used for sorting macromolecules. A mixture of molecules is placed on a gel between a positively charged electrode and a negatively charged electrode; negative charges on the molecules are attracted to the positive electrode and the molecules migrate toward that electrode. The molecules separate in the gell according to their rates of migration.

14

Gene Cloning

The production of multiple copies of a gene.

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Transgenic Organism

An organism that contains genes from another organism, typically of another species.

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Plasmids

A circular bacterial DNA, sometimes used as a vector for gene insertion or genetic engineering. Often the site of code resistance for antibiotics

17

Polymerase Chain Reaction

biomedical technology in molecular biology used to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.

18

Proteomics

the study of proteomes and their functions.

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Recombinant DNA

DNA that has been formed artificially by combining constituents from different organisms.

20

Restriction Enzymes

an enzyme produced chiefly by certain bacteria, having the property of cleaving DNA molecules at or near a specific sequence of bases.

21

Vectors

an organism, typically a biting insect or tick, that transmits a disease or parasite from one animal or plant to another