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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (34):
1

Magnification

Increase in an objects apparent size compared to its actual size

2

Resolving power

The ability of an optical instrument to show two objects as separate

3

Cell theory

A theory which states that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells

4

Electron microscope

Uses a beam of electrons to resolve objects

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Scanning electron microscope

To study the detailed architecture of the cell surface

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Transmission electron microscope

A microscope used for exploring the internal structure of a cell

7

Prokaryotic cells

A cell that lacks a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles ex. Bacteria

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Eukaryotic cells

A type of cell that has a membrane enclosed nucleus and other membrane enclosed organelles all organisms except bacteria and archaea are composed of eukaryotic cells

9

Prokaryotic cell

A type of cell lacking a nucleus and other organelles found only in the domains bacteria and Archaea

10

Plasma membrane

The thin layer of lipids and proteins that sets a cell from its surroundings and acts as a selective barrier to the passage of ions and molecules in two and out of the cell consists of a phospholipid by layer and which proteins are embedded

11

Ribosomes

A cellular structure consisting of RNA and protein organized into subunits and functioning as a sight of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm the ribosomal subunits are constructed in the nucleus

12

Nucleus

And Adam central core containing protons and neutrons & genetic control center of a eukaryotic cell

13

Chromatin

The combination of DNA and proteins that constitutes chromosomes often used to refer to that diffuse very extended form taken by the chromosomes when a eukaryotic cell is not dividing

14

Chromosome

A gene carrying structure found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell and most visible during mitosis and meiosis also the main Gene caring structure of a prokaryotic cell each chromosome consists of one very long threadlike DNA molecule and associated proteins

15

Nucleolus

A structural with in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell where ribosomal are in a is made in the same boat with proteins to make up ribosomal subunits consists of parts of chromatin DNA RNA transcribed from the DNA and proteins and ported from the cytoplasm

16

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

A network of interconnected membrane tubes in a eukaryotic cells cytoplasm. Smooth ER lacks ribosomes. Enzymes in bedded in the smooth ER membrane function in the synthesis of certain kinds of molecules, such as lipids

17

Endomembrane system

A network of organelles that partitions the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells into functional compartments. Some of the organelles are structural connected to others whereas others are structurally separate but functionally connected by the traffic of vesicles that travels between them

18

Rough ER

A network of interconnected membrane sacs in a eukaryotic cells cytoplasm. Rough ER membranes are studded with ribozymes that make membrane proteins and secretory proteins. The rough ER constructs membrane from phospholipids and proteins.

19

Golgi apparatus

An organelle in the eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of membranes sacs that modify store and ship products of the endoplasmic reticulum

20

Lysosome

A digestive organelle in eukaryotic cells contains enzymes that digest the cells food and wastes

21

Food vacuole

A tiny sack in a eukaryotic cells cytoplasm that involves nutrients. Or the simplest type of digestive compartment

22

Vacuoles

A membrane enclosed sack, part of the Indo membrane system of a eukaryotic cell, having diverse functions

23

Central vacuoles

A membrane enclosed sack occupying most of the interior of a mature plant cell having diverse rolls in reproduction growth and development

24

Chloroplasts

And organelle found in plants and photosynthesis protists . Enclosed by two concentric remembrance, a chloroplast absorbs sunlight and uses it to power the synthesis of organic food molecules

25

Stoma

A poor surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of a leaf when's stoma are open CO2 enters the leaf and water in 02 exit a plant conserves water when it stoma are closed

26

Grana

A stack of hollow disks form the thylakoid membrane in a chloroplast. Grandma are the sites where light energy is trapped by chlorophyll and converted into chemical energy during the light reactions of photosynthesis.

27

Matrix

The thick fluid contained within the inter-membrane of the mitochondria

28

Mitochondria

And organelle in eukaryotic cells where cellular respiration occurs. Enclosed by to concentric membranes, it is where most of the cells ATP is made.

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Cristae

A fold of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. Enzyme molecules embedded in cristae make ATP

30

Microtubules

The thickest of three main kinds of fibers making up the cytoskeleton of a eukaryotic cell: a straight, hollow tube made of globular proteins called tubulins. Microtubules form the basis of the structure and movement of cilia and Flagella

31

Cytoskeleton

A meshwork of fine fibers in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell; includes microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules

32

Flagella

A long appendage that propels protests through the water and moves fluids across the surface of many tissue cells and animals a cell may have one or more flagella

33

Cilia

A short appendage that propels some protists through the water and moves fluids across the surface of many tissue cells in animals

34

Light microscope

Visible light is projected through the specimen glass lenses enlarge the image and project it into a human eye or camera