Chapter 17 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17 Deck (74):
1

Amniotes

Member of a clade of tetrapods that has an amniotic egg containing specialized membranes that protect the embryo. Mammals reptiles and birds.

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Amniotic Egg

A shelled egg in which an embryo develops within a fluid filled amniotic sac and is nourished by yolk.

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Amphibians

Member of a class of vertebrate animals that includes frogs and salamanders.

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Animals

A eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic organism that obtains nutrients by ingestion.

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Annelids

A segmented worm.

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Anthropoid

A member of the primate group made up of the apes, monkeys and all humans.

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Arachnids

A member of a major arthropod group that includes spiders, scorpions, ticks and mites.

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Arthropods

A member of the most diverse phylum, includes horseshoe crab, arachnids, crustaceans, millipedes, centipedes and insects. Characterized by chitinous exoskeleton, molting, jointed appendages, and a body formed of distinct segments.

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Bilateral Symmetry

An arrangement of body parts such that an organism can be divided equally by a single cut passing longitudinally through it. A mirror image organism.

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Birds

Member of a group of reptiles with feathers and adaptations for flight.

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Bivalves

A member of a group of molluscs that includes clams, mussels, scallops and oysters.

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Blastula

An embryonic stage that marks the end of cleavage during animal development, a hollow ball of cells in many species.

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Body cavity

A fluid filled space separating the digestive tract from the outer body wall.

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Body Segmentation

Subdivision of an animal's body into a series of repeated parts called segments.

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Bony Fishes

A fish that has a stiff skeleton reinforced by calcium salts.

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Cartilaginous Fishes

A fish that has a flexible skeleton made of cartilage.

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Centipedes

A carnivorous terrestrial arthropod that has one pair of long legs for each of its numerous body segments, with the front pair modified as poison claws.

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Cephalopods

A member of a group of molluscs that includes squids and octopuses.

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Chordates

An animal that at some point during its development has a dorsal, hollow nerve chord, a notochord, pharyngeal slits, and a post anal tail. Lancelets, tunicates and vertebrates.

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Placenta

In most mammals, the organ that provides nutrients and oxygen to the embryo and helps dispose of its metabolic wastes.

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Placental Mammals

Mammal whose young complete their embryonic development in the uterus, nourished via the mother's blood vessels in the placenta.

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Polychaetes

A type of annelid or segmented worm, that typically lives on the seafloor.

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Polyp

One of two types of cnidarian body forms; a sessile, columnar, hydra-like body.

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Post- anal Tail

A tail posterior to the anus, found in chordate embryos and most adult chordates.

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Primates

Member of the mammalian group that includes lorises, pottos, lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys, apes and humans.

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Insects

a small arthropod animal that has six legs and generally one or two pairs of wings.

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Invertebrates

an animal lacking a backbone

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Lancelets

a small elongated marine invertebrate that resembles a fish but lacks jaws and obvious sense organs.

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Larva

the active immature form of an insect, especially one that differs greatly from the adult and forms the stage between egg and pupa, e.g., a caterpillar or grub.

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Lateral line System

a system of sense organs found in aquatic vertebrates used to detect movement and vibration in the surrounding water.

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Leeches

an aquatic or terrestrial annelid worm with suckers at both ends. Many species are bloodsucking parasites, especially of vertebrates, and others are predators.

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Lobe-Finned Fishes

bony fish with fleshy, lobed, paired fins, which are joined to the body by a single bone. The fins of lobe-finned fishes differ from those of all other fish in that each is borne on a fleshy, lobelike, scaly stalk extending from the body.

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Mammals

a warm-blooded vertebrate animal of a class that is distinguished by the possession of hair or fur, the secretion of milk by females for the nourishment of the young, and (typically) the birth of live young.

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Mantle

an outer or enclosing layer of tissue, especially (in mollusks, cirripedes, and brachiopods) a fold of skin enclosing the viscera and secreting the substance that produces the shell.

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Marsupials

a mammal of an order whose members are born incompletely developed and are typically carried and suckled in a pouch on the mother's belly.

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Medusa

a free-swimming sexual form of a coelenterate such as a jellyfish, typically having an umbrella-shaped body with stinging tentacles around the edge. In some species, medusae are a phase in the life cycle that alternates with a polypoid phase.

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Metamorphosis

the process of transformation from an immature form to an adult form in two or more distinct stages.

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Millipedes

a myriapod invertebrate with an elongated body composed of many segments, most of which bear two pairs of legs. Most kinds are herbivorous and shun light, living in the soil or under stones and logs.

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Molluscs

an invertebrate of a large phylum that includes snails, slugs, mussels, and octopuses. They have a soft, unsegmented body and live in aquatic or damp habitats, and most kinds have an external calcareous shell.

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Monotremes

a primitive mammal that lays large yolky eggs and has a common opening for the urogenital and digestive systems.

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Nematodes

a worm of the large phylum Nematoda, such as a roundworm or threadworm.

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Notochord

cartilaginous skeletal rod supporting the body in all embryonic and some adult chordate animals.

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Operculum

a structure that closes or covers an aperture, in particular.

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Pharyngeal Slits

ilter-feeding organs found in Invertebrate chordates and hemichordates living in aquatic environments. These repeated segments are controlled by similar developmental mechanisms.

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Water vascular system

a network of water vessels in the body, the tube feet being operated by hydraulic pressure within the vessels.

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Vertebrates

animal of a large group distinguished by the possession of a backbone or spinal column, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.

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Tunicates

a marine invertebrate of a group that includes the sea squirts and salps. They have a rubbery or hard outer coat and two siphons to draw water into and out of the body.

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Tetrapods

a four-footed animal, especially a member of a group that includes all vertebrates higher than fishes.

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Swim Bladder

a gas-filled sac present in the body of many bony fishes, used to maintain and control buoyancy.

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Sponges

a primitive sedentary aquatic invertebrate with a soft porous body that is typically supported by a framework of fibers or calcareous or glassy spicules. Sponges draw in a current of water to extract nutrients and oxygen.

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cnidarians

an animal characterized by cnidocytes, radial symmetry, a gastrovascular cavity, and a polyp or medusa body form. Cnidarians include hydras, jellies, sea anemones, and corals

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coelom

a body cavity completely lined by tissue derived from mesoderm

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complete digestive tract

a digestive tube with two openings, a mouth and an anus

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crustaceans

a member of a major arthropod group that includes lobsters, crayfish, crabs, shrimps, and barnacles

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culture

the accumulated knowledge, customs, beliefs, arts and other human products that are socially transmitted over the generations

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dorsal, hollow nerve cord

one of the four hallmarks of chordates; the chordate brain and spinal cord

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earthworms

a type of annelid, or segmented worm, which extracts nutrients from soil

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echinoderms

member of a group of slow-moving or sessile marine animals characterized by a rough or spiny skin, a water vascular system, typically an endoskeleton, and radial symmetry in adults. Echinoderms include sea stars, sea urchins, and sand dollars

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ectotherms

an animal that warms itself mainly by absorbing heat from its surroundings

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endoskeleton

a hard interior skeleton located within the soft tissues of an animal; found in all vertebrates and a few invertebrates(such as echinoderms)

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endotherms

an animal that derives most of its body heat from its own metabolism

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eutherians

placental mammal

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exoskeleton

a hard external skeleton that protects an animal and provides points of attachment for muscles

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flatworms

a bilateral animal with a thin flat body form, a gastrovascular cavity with a single opening, and no body cavity. Flatworms include planarians, flukes and tapeworms

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gastropods

a member of the largest group of mollusks, including snails and slugs

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gastrovascular cavity

a digestive compartment with a single opening that serves as both the entrance for food and the exit for undigested waste, may also function in circulation, body support, and a gas exchange. Jellies and hydras are examples of animals with a gastrovascular cavity

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gastrula

the embryonic stage resulting from gastrulation in animal development. Most animals have a gastrula made up of three layers of cells;ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm

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hominins

a species on the human branch of the evolutionary tree; a member of the family Hominidae, including homo sapiens and our ancestors

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pseudocoelom

a body cavity that is not completely lined by tissue derived from mesoderm

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radial symmetry

an arrangement of the body parts of an organism like pieces of pie around an imaginary central axis, any slice passing longitudinally through a radially symmetrical organism center divides into two mirror halves

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radula

a file like organ found in many mollusks, used to scrape up or shed food

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ray finned fishes

a bony fish having fins supported by thin flexible skeletal rays. All but one living species of bony fishes are ray fins

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reptiles

member of the clade of amniotes that includes snakes, lizards, turtles, crocodiles, alligators, birds and a number of extinct groups(most dinosuars)

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roundworms

a nematode. An animal characterized by a pseudocoelom, a cylindrical wormlike body form, and a complete digestive tract