Chapter #5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter #5 Deck (36):
1

Activation Energy

the minimum quantity of energy that the reacting species must possess in order to undergo a specified reaction.

2

Active Site

a region on an enzyme that binds to a protein or other substance during a reaction.

3

Active Transport

the movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy.

4

ADP

an ester of adenosine that is converted to ATP for the storage of energy. Short for adenosine diphosphate. An organic compound that is composed of adenosine and two phosphate groups.

5

ATP

considered by biologists to be the energy currency of life. It is the high-energy molecule that stores the energy we need to do just about everything we do.

6

Calorie

the energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water through 1 °C

7

Chemical Energy

energy stored in the bonds of chemical compounds (atoms and molecules). It is released in a chemical reaction, often producing heat as a by product (exothermic reaction).

8

Concentration Gradient

the process of particles, which are sometimes called solutes, moving through a solution or gas from an area of higher number of particles to an area of lower number of particles. The areas are typically separated by a membrane.

9

Conservation Energy

a principle stating that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can be altered from one form to another.

10

Phagocytosis

the ingestion of bacteria or other material by phagocytes and amoeboid protozoans.

11

Potential Energy

the energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position relative to others, stresses within itself, electric charge, and other factors.

12

Diffusion

The spontaneous movement of particles of any kind down a concentration gradient. (high concentration to low concentration)

13

Endocytosis

The movement of materials into the cytoplasm of a cell via vesicles or vacuoles.

14

Energy

The capacity to preform work, or to move matter in a direction it would mot move if left alone.

15

Entropy

A measure of disorder. One form of disorder is heat, which is random molecular motion.

16

hypertonic

in comparing two solutions, referring to the one with the greater concentration of solutes(shrivel, water leaves the substance)

17

Enzyme Inhibitor

A chemical that interferes with an enzyme's activity by changing the enzyme's shape, either by plugging up the active site or binding to another site on the enzyme.

18

induced fit

the interaction between a substrate molecule and the active site of an enzyme, which changes shape slightly to embrace the substrate and catalyze the reaction

19

isotonic

having the same solute concentration as another solution

20

Enzyme

A protein that serves as a biological catalyst, changing the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed in the process.

21

Enzyme Inhibitor

A chemical that interferes with an enzyme's activity by changing the enzyme's shape, either by plugging up the active site or binding to another site on the enzyme.

22

kinetic energy

energy of motion. moving matter performs work by transferring its motion to other matter, such as leg muscles pushing a bicycle pedal

23

Exocytosis

The movement of materials out of the cytoplasm of a cell via membranous vesicle or vacuole.

24

Facilitated Diffusion

The passage of a substance across a biological membrane down its concentration gradient, aided by specific transport proteins.

25

Heat

The amount of kinetic energy contained in the movement of the atoms and molecules in a body of matter.

26

Signal Transduction Pathway

A series of molecular changes that converts a signal on a target cell's surface to a specific response inside of the cell.

27

induced fit

the interaction between a substrate molecule and the active site of an enzyme, which changes shape slightly to embrace the substrate and catalyze the reaction

28

isotonic

having the same solute concentration as another solution(balanced)

29

kinetic energy

energy of motion. moving matter performs work by transferring its motion to other matter, such as leg muscles pushing bicycle pedals

30

metabolism

the total of all the chemical reactions in an organism

31

osmoregulation

the control of the gain or loss of water and dissolved solutes in an organism

32

osmosis

the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane

33

passive transport

the diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane without any input of energy

34

solute

a substance that is dissolved in a solution

35

substrate

a specific substance which an enzyme reacts. Each enzyme recognizes only the specific substrate of the reaction it catalyzes. a surface in or on which an organism lives

36

transport proteins

a membrane protein that helps move substances across a cell membrane