Chapter #3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter #3 Deck (40):
1

Amino Acid

An organic molecule containing a carboxyl group, an amino group, a hydrogen atom, and a variable side chain that serves as the monomer of proteins

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Atherosclerosis

I cardiovascular disease in which plaque develops inside the arteries, narrowing the passageways in which blood can flow

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Carbohydrates

A biological molecule consisting of simple single monomer sugars, two monomer sugars, and other multi unit sugars.

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Cellulose

Glucose monomers linked to cable like fibrils that provide support for plant or animal cells.

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Dehydration Reaction

A chemical process in which a polymer forms when monomers are linked by the removal of water. A dehydration reaction is the opposite of a hydrolysis reaction.

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Denaturation

A process in which protein molecules unravel losing specific conformation and hence function. can be caused in changes in ph, salt concentration, or by high temperature. also refers to the separation of a double helix.

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Disaccharide

A sugar molecule consisting of two monosaccharides, linked by a dehydration reaction.

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DNA

The genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents.

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Double Helix

The form assumed by DNA in living cells, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape.

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Fat

A large lipid molecule made from an alcohol called glycerol and three fatty acids; a triglyceride. Most fats function as energy storage molecules.

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Functional Groups

The atoms that form the chemically reactive part of an organic molecule.

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Gene

A unit of inheritance in DNA consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence that programs the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide. Most of the genes of a eukaryote are located in its chromosomal DNA; a few are carried by the DNA of mitochondria and chloroplasts.

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Glycogen

A complex, extensively branched polysaccharide made up of many glucose monomers; serves as an energy-storage molecule in liver and muscle cells

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Hydrocarbons

A chemical compound composed only of the elements carbon and hydrogen.

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Hydrogenation

The process of converting unsaturated fats to saturated fats by the addition of hydrogen

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Hydrolysis

A chemical process in which macromolecules are broken down by the chemical addition of water molecules to the bonds linking their monomers; an essential part of digestion. A hydrolysis reaction is the opposite of a dehydration reaction.

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Hydrophilic

"water loving"; pertaining to polar, or charged molecules which are soluble in water.

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Hydrophobic

" water fearing "; retaining to non polar molecules which do not dissolve in water.

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Isomers

One of two or more molecules with the same molecular formula but different structures, thus different properties.

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Lipids

An organic compound consisting mainly of carbo and hydrogen atoms linked by non polar covalent bonds and therefor mostly hydrophobic. Wax, fat ,phospholipids, and steroids.

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Macromolecules

A giant molecule in a living organism. Ex. proteins

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Monomers

A chemical subunit that serves as a building block of a polymer.

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Monosaccharides

The smallest kind of a sugar molecule; a single-unit sugar; also known as a simple sugar. Monosaccharides are the building blocks of more complex sugars and polysaccharides.

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Nucleic Acids

A polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as the blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of protein for all cellular structure/ activity.

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Nucleotides

An organic monomer consisting of a five carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group. Building blocks of nucleic acids

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Organic Compounds

A chemical compound containing the element carbonated is usually synthesized by cells.

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Peptide Bond

The covalent linkage between two amino acid units in a polypeptide formed by a dehydration reaction between two amino acids

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Polymers

A large molecule consisting of many identical or smaller units (monomer) covalently joined together together in a chain

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Polypeptide

A chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds

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Polysaccharides

A carbohydrate polymer consisting of many monosaccharides linked together by covalent bonds

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Primary Structure

The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making u a polypeptide chain

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Protein

A biological polymer constructed from amino acid monomers.

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RNA

Ribonucleic acid . A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar, a phosphate group, the nitrogenous bases adenine , cytosine, guanine, and uracil. Usually single stranded functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.

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Saturated

Pertaining to fats and fatty acids whose hydrocarbon chains contain the maximum number of hydrogens and therefore have no double covalent bonds. saturated fats and fatty acids solidify at room temperature.

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Starch

A storage polysaccharide found in the roots of plants and certain other cells; a polymer of glucose.

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Steroids

A type of lipid whose carbon skeleton is in the form of four fused rings: three six sided rings and one five sided . Ex. Cholesterol Testosterone and estrogen

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Sugar Phosphate Backbone

The alternating chain of sugar and phosphate to which DNA and RNA nitrogenous bases are attached.

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Trans-Fat

An unsaturated fatty acid produced by the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils and present in hardened vegetable oils, most margarines, commercial baked foods, and many fried foods.

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Triglyceride

A dietary fat, which consists of a molecule of glycerol linked to three molecules of a fatty acid.

40

Unsaturated

Pertaining to fats and fatty acids whose hydrocarbon chains lack the maximum number of hydrogen atoms and therefore have one or more double covalent bonds. Unsaturated fats and fatty acids do not solidify at room temperature,