Chapter 15 Flashcards Preview

PCC Biology > Chapter 15 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 15 Deck (34):
1

bioremediation

the use of living organisms to detoxify and restore polluted and degraded ecosystems

2

cellular slime mold

a type of protist that has unicellular amoeboid cells and a multicellular reproductive body in its life cycle

3

ciliates

a type of protozoan that moves and feeds by means of cilia

4

cocci

spherical prokaryotic cells

5

diatoms

a unicellular photosynthetic alga with a unique glassy cell wall containing silica

6

dinoflagellate

a unicellular photosynthetic alga with two flagella situated in perpendicular grooves in cellulose plates covering the cell

7

endospore

a thick coated, protective cell produced within a prokaryotic cell exposed to harsh conditions

8

endosymbiosis

symbiotic relationship in which one species resides within another species. The mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells probably evolved from symbiotic associations between small prokaryotic cells living inside larger ones

9

endotoxins

a poisonous component of the outer membrane of certain bacteria

10

protozoans

a protist that lives primarily by ingesting food, a heterotrophic, animal like protist

11

pseudopodia

a temporary extension of an amoeboid cell. Pseudopodia functions in moving cells and engulfing food

12

seaweeds

a large multicellular marine alga

13

Algae

An informal term that describes a variety of protists, most of which are multicellular or colonial photosynthetic autographs with chloroplasts.

14

Amoebas

A type of protists characterized by great structural flexibility and the presence of pseudopodia.

15

Apicomplexans

A type of parasitic protozoan. Some cause serious human disease.

16

Archaea

One of two prokaryotic domains of life, the other being Bacteria.

17

Bacilli

A rod-shaped prokaryotic cell.

18

Bacteria

One of two prokaryotic domains of life, the other being Archaea.

19

Binary Fission

A means of asexual reproduction in which a parent organism, often a single cell, divides into two individuals of about equal size.

20

Biogenesis

The principle that all life arises by the reproduction of preexisting life.

21

Plasmodial Slime Mold

A type of protist named for an amoeboid plasmodial feeding stage in its life cycle.

22

Prokaryotes

An organism characterized by prokaryotic cells.

23

Protists

Any eukaryote that is not a plant, animal, or fungus.

24

Eukarya

a domain of organisms having cells each with a distinct nucleus within which the genetic material is contained.

25

Eukaryotes

An organism whose cells contain a nucleus surrounded by a membrane and whose DNA is bound together by proteins (histones) into chromosomes.

26

Exotoxins

a toxin released by a living bacterial cell into its surroundings.

27

Flagellates

a protozoan that has one or more flagella used for swimming.

28

Forams

Forams are single-celled organisms that typically live in the ocean and produce a mineralized shell. Foram shells are generally composed of secreted calcium carbonate , but less commonly they may be composed of organic material or cemented particles scavenged from the sea floor.

29

Green Algae

photosynthetic algae that contain chlorophyll and store starch in discrete chloroplasts. They are eukaryotic and most live in fresh water, ranging from unicellular flagellates to more complex multicellular forms.

30

Parasite

an organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits by deriving nutrients at the host's expense.

31

Pathogens

a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease.

32

Plankton

the small and microscopic organisms drifting or floating in the sea or fresh water, consisting chiefly of diatoms, protozoans, small crustaceans, and the eggs and larval stages of larger animals. Many animals are adapted to feed on plankton, especially by filtering the water.

33

Spontaneous Generation

the supposed production of living organisms from nonliving matter, as inferred from the apparent appearance of life in some supposedly sterile environments.

34

Symbiosis

interaction between two different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both.