Chapter 13 Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance Deck (17):
1

Hormones that regulate fluid balance

Aldosterone
ADH
Natriuretic peptides

2

Level and function of Na+

135-145
skeletal muscle contraction, cardiac contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and normal osmolarity and volume of the ECF

3

Level and function of K+

3.5-5
Depolarization and generation of action potentials, as well as regulating protein synthesis and glucose use and storage

4

Medication used to treat hyperkalemia

Kayexalate, insulin

5

Level and function of Ca2+

9-10.5
functions closely related to those of phosphorus and magnesium.

6

Interventions for hypercalcemia

IV 0.9% sodium chloride, furosemide, calcium chelators, phosphorus, calcitonin, bisphosphonates, and prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors
Dialysis

7

Level and function of P

3.0-4.5
Found in the bones
needed for activating vitamins and enzymes, forming adenosine triphosphate, and assisting in cell growth and metabolism.
Reciprocal relationship to Ca2+

8

Dietary sources of P

meats, fish, dairy products, and nuts

9

Manifestations of hypophosphatemia

Cardiac/CNS changes
Rhabdomyolysis

10

hypophosphatemia interventions

Phosphorus replacement
Vitamin D supplement

11

Hyperphosphatemia effects

causes hypocalcemia
most problems come from that

12

Causes of hyperphosphatemia

renal insufficiency, certain cancer treatments, increased phosphorus intake, and hypoparathyroidism.

13

Level and function of Mg

1.3-2.1
critical for skeletal muscle contraction, carbohydrate metabolism, ATP formation, vitamin activation, and cell growth.

14

Hypomagnesemia causes what?

increased membrane excitability and the accompanying serum calcium and potassium imbalances.

15

Hypermagnesemia causes what?

excitable membranes are less excitable and need a stronger-than-normal stimulus to respond

16

Hypermagnesemia interventions

Fluids
Lasix
Ca2+

17

Level for Cl-

98-106